Jomar L. Aban*
Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University – North La Union Campus
Bacnotan, La Union 2515 Philippines
The use of microorganisms as an environmentally safe method for agricultural crop production and biocontrol has increased in recent years but is still considerably underexploited. This study explored the potential growth-promoting properties of non-dominant root symbiotic fungal (ND-RSF) isolates from Drynaria quercifolia L. and their effects on rice. The five molecularly identified ND-RSF isolates induced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production spectrophotometrically at 530 nm. The Trichoderma scalesiae isolate produced the highest IAA per unit volume of culture broth and the highest IAA per unit of dry weight. All five ND-RSF isolates have phosphate solubilization activity. Three ND-RSF isolates significantly increased the total length of paclobutrazol, a gibberellic acid (GA) inhibitor, treated rice plants. The fresh weight of rice inoculated with Aspergillus brunneoviolaceus is significantly heavier than the negative broth and water control. The dry weight of rice inoculated with Aspergillus aculeatus, Aspergillus japonicus, and Aspergillus brunneoviolaceus are significantly higher compared to the positive controls (20 PPM GA, 20 PPM IAA, and non-paclobutrazol treated rice seedlings). The results indicate the ability of these three Aspergillus isolates to synthesize the GA hormone. The ability of these ND-RSF isolates to produce growth-promoting hormones auxin and GA, plus their ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate are evidence to their potential growth-promoting abilities toward their host plant. This present study also implies that these ND-RSF can be growth-promoting mutualists to rice.
ABAN JL, BARCELO RC, ODA EE, REYES GA, BALANGCOD TD, GUTIERREZ RM, HIPOL RM. 2017a. Auxin production, phosphate solubilization and ACC deaminase activity of root symbiotic fungi (RSF) from Drynaria quercifolia L. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences 6(5): 26–31.
ABAN JL, HIPOL RM, BALANGCOD TD, GUTIERREZ RM, BARCELO RC, ODA EE, REYES GA. 2017b. Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships Among Isolated Root Symbiotic Fungi from Drynaria quercifolia L. in La Union, Philippines. Manila Journal of Science 10: 87–100.
ABAN J. 2019. Isolation, molecular identification, phylogenetic analysis and biodiversity of root symbiotic fungi (RSF) from Drynaria quercifolia L. IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation 27: 1–21.
AL-ASKAR AA, EZZAT AS, GHONEEM KM, SABER WIA. 2016. Trichoderma harzianum WKY5 and its gibberellic acid control of Rhizoctonia solani, improve sprouting, growth and productivity of potato. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 26(4): 787–796.
ALTOMARE C, NORVELL WA, BJORKMAN T, HARMAN GE. 1999. Solubilization of phosphates and micronutrients by the plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai 1295-22. Applied Environmental Microbiology 65(7): 2926–2933.
ANIL K, LAKSHMI T. 2010. Phosphate solubilization potential and phosphate activity of rhizospheric Trichoderma spp. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 41(3): 787–795.
BARBA R JR, MARQUEZ N, TABLIZO R. 2014. Screening for drought-tolerant and low-input responsive upland rice landraces. American Journal of Plant Sciences 5: 3432–3439.
BILKAY IS, KARAKOC S, AKSOZ N. 2010. Idole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid production in Aspergillus niger. Turkish Journal of Biology 34: 313–318.
BJORKMAN T. 2004. Effect of Trichoderma colonization on auxin-mediated regulation of root elongation. Plant Growth Regulation 43: 89–92.
BORGES-CHAGAS LF, CHAGAS AF JR, DE CARVALHO, MR, DE OLIVEIRA-MILLER L, OROZCO-COLONIA BS. 2015. Evaluation of the phosphate solubilization potential of Trichoderma strains (Trichoplus JCO) and effects on rice biomass. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 15(3). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162015005000054.
BROTMAN Y, LANDAU U, CUADROS-INOSTROZA A, TAKAYUKI T, FERNIE AR, CHET I, VITERBO A, WILLMITZER L. 2013. Trichoderma-Plant Root Colonization: Escaping Early Plant Defense Responses and Activation of the Antioxidant Machinery for Saline Stress Tolerance. PLOS Pathogens 9(4). doi: 10.1371/annotation/8b818c15-3fe0-4e56-9be2-e44fd1ed3fae.
BRUNDRETT M. 2006. Understanding the roles of multifunctional mycorrhizal and symbiotic fungi. In: Microbial root symbionts. Schulz B, Boyle C, Sieber T eds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. p. 281–293.
DE SOUZA R, AMBROSINI A, PASSAGLIA LMP. 2015. Plant growth-promoting bacteria as inoculants in agricultural soils. Genetics and Molecular Biology 38(4): 401–419. doi: http://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-475738420150053.
DONI F, ISAHAK A, ZAIN CRCM, ARIFFIN SM, MOHAMAD WNW, YUSOFF WMW. 2014. Formulation of Trichoderma sp. SL2 inoculants using different carriers for soil treatment in rice seedling growth. SpringerPlus 3: 532. doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-532.
ELIAS F, WOYESSA D, MULETA D. 2016. Phosphate solubilization potential of rhizosphere fungi isolated from plants in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. International Journal of Microbiology (Article ID 5742601). doi: dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5472601.
EVANS LT ed. 1998. Feeding the ten billion: plants and population growth. Cambridge University Press.
FAIRHURST T, DOBERMANN A. 2002. Rice in the global food supply. World 5(7,502): 454–349.
FLINN JC, DE DATTA SK. 2004. Trends in irrigated rice yields under intensive cropping at Philippine research stations. Field Crops Research. p. 1–15.
GLICKMANN E, DESSAUX Y. 1995. A critical examination of the specificity of the Salkowski reagent for indolic compounds produced by phytopathogenic bacteria. Applied Environmental Microbiology 61: 793–796.
HAMAYUN M, KHAN SA, KIM HY, CHAUDHARY MF, HWANG YH, SHIN DH, LEE IJ. 2009. Gibberellin production and plant growth enhancement by newly isolated strain of Scolecobasidium tshawytschae. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 19: 560–565.
HAMAYUN M, KHAN SA, IGBAL I, AHMAD B, LEE IJ. 2010. Isolation of a gibberellin-producing fungus (Penicillium sp. MH7) and growth promotion of Crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium). Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 20(1): 202–207.
HARMAN GE, HOWELL CR, VITERBO A, CHET I, LORITO M. 2004. Trichoderma species—opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2(1): 43–56.
HEDDEN P, KAMIYA Y. 1997. Gibberellin biosynthesis: enzymes, genes and their regulation. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 48: 431–460.
HERMOSA R, VITERBO A, CHET I, MONTE E. 2012. Plant-beneficial effects of Trichoderma and of its genes. Microbiology 158(Pt. 1): 17–25.
HOYOS-CARVAJAL L, ORDUZ S, BISSET J. 2009. Growth stimulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by Trichoderma. Biological Control 51(3): 409–416.
KHAN S, ZAIDI A, AHMAND E. 2014. Mechanisms of phosphate solubilization and physiological functions of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. p. 31–62.
LEE E-H, EO JK, KA KH, EOM AH. 2013. Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Roles in Ecosystems. Mycobiology 41(3): 121–125. http://doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2013.41.3.121.
LIU D, COLOE S, BAIRD R, PEDERSEN J. 2000. Rapid mini-preparation of fungal DNA for PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38(1): 471.
LIU Q, KATOU K, OKAMOTO H. 1992. Effects of exogenous auxin on the regulation of elongation growth of excised segments of Vigna hypocotyls under osmotic stress. Plant Cell Physiology 33(7): 915–919.
LOPEZ-BUCIO J, PELAGIO-FLORES R, HERRERA-ESTRELLA A. 2015. Trichoderma as biostimulant: exploiting the multilevel properties of a plant beneficial fungus. Scientia Horticulturae. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.08.043.
MUTHAYYA S, SUGIMOTO JD, MONTGOMERYS, MABERLY GF. 2014. An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1324(1): 7–14.
OLIVEIRA C, ALVES V, MARRIEL I, GOMES E, SCOTTI M, CARNEIRO N, SA N. 2009. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere of maize cultivated in oxisol of the Brazilian Cerrado Biome. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41(9): 1782–1787.
ONYANGO AO. 2014. Exploring options for improving rice production to reduce hunger and poverty in Kenya. World Environment 4(4): 172–179.
PARK HS, JUN SC, HAN KH, HONG SB, YU JH. 2017. Diversity, application, and synthetic biology of industrially important Aspergillus fungi. In: Advances in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 100. Academic Press. p. 161–202.
RANGASWAMY V. 2012. Improved production of gibberellic acid by Fusarium moniliforme. Journal of Microbiology Research 2(3): 51–55.
RESENDE M, JAKOBY ICMC, DOS SANTOS LCR, SOARES MA, PEREIRA FD, SOUCHIE EL, SILVA FG. 2014. Phosphate solubilization and phytohormone production by endophytic and rhizosphere Trichoderma isolates of guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess). African Journal of Microbiology Research 8(27): 2616–2623.
RIOS-IRIBE EY, FLORES-COTERES LB, GONZALEZ-CHARIVA MM, GONZALES-ALATORRE G, ESCAMILLA-SILVA EM. 2010. Inductive effect produced by a mixture of carbon source in the production of gibberellic acid by Gibberella fujikuroi. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 11: 1–7.
SANTOS PJ, OCAMPO ET. 2005. SNAP hydroponics: development & potential for urban vegetable production. Philippine Journal of Crop Science 30(2): 3–11.
SHARMA SB, SAYYED RZ, TRIVEDI MH, GOBI TA. 2013. Phosphate solubilizing microbes: sustainable approach for managing phosphorus deficiency in agricultural soils. SpringerPlus 2(1): 587.
SELOSSE MA, LE TACON F. 1998. The land flora: a phototroph-fungus partnership? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13(1): 15–20.
SINGH R, SHELKE G, KUMAR A, JHA P. 2015. Biochemistry and genetics of ACC deaminase: a weapon to “stress ethylene” produced in plants. Frontiers in Microbiology 6(937): 1–14.
SON H-J, PARK G-T, CHA M-S, HEO M-S. 2006. Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphates by a novel salt- and pH-tolerant Pantoea agglomerans R-42 isolated from soybean rhizosphere. Bioresource Technology 97(2): 204–210. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2005.02.021.
SUGIHARTO S, YUDIARTI T, ISROLI I. 2016. Assay of antioxidant potentials of two filamentous fungi isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava. Antioxidants 5(1). pii:E6. doi: 10.3390/antiox5010006.
TAIZ L, ZEIGER E. 2006. Plant Physiology, 5th Edition. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. p. 612–614.
TIAN Y, AMAND S, BUISSON D, KUNZ C, HACHETTE F, DUPONT J, NAY B, PRADO S. 2014. The fungal leaf symbiont Paraconiothyrium variabile specifically metabolizes the host-plant metabolome for its own benefit. Phytochemistry 108: 95–101.
TIWARI VN, LEHRI LK, PATHAK AN. 1989. Effect of inoculating crops with phospho-microbes. Experimental Agriculture 25(1): 47–50.
VINALE F, SIVASITHAMPARAM K, GHISALBERTI EL, WOO SL, NIGRO M, MARRA R, LOMBARDI N, PASCALE A, RUOCCO M, LANZUISE S, MANGAIELLO G, LORITO M. 2014. Trichoderma secondary metabolites active on plants and fungal pathogens. The Open Mycology Journal 8(Suppl-1, M5): 127–139.
XIAO C, CHI R, HE H, QIU G, WANG D, ZHANG W. 2009. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungi from phosphate mines and their effect on wheat seedling growth. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 159(2): 330–342. doi: 10.1007/s12010-009-8590-3.
XIN G, GLAWE D, DOTY S. 2009. Characterization of three endophytic indole-3-acetic acid-producing yeasts occurring in Populus trees. Mycological Research 113: 973–980.
YADAV J, VERMA JP, TIWARI KN. 2011. Plant growth promoting activities of fungi and their effect on chickpea plant growth. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences. 4: 291–299.
YASSER MM, MOUSA ASM, SASSOUD, ON, NASR SH. 2014. Solubilization of inorganic phosphate by phosphate solubilizing fungi isolated from Egyptian soils. Journal of Biology and Earth Sciences 4(1): B83–B90.
YEDIDIA I, SRIVASTVA AK, KAPULUIK Y, CHET I. 2001. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on microelement concentration and increased growth of cucumber plants. Plant Soil 235: 235–242.