Biochar From Sugarcane Bagasse and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth and Nutrient Status of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) Seedlings Under Nursery Conditions
Nelly S. Aggangan1* and Joshua G. Jomao-as1,2
1National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology,
University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna 4031 Philippines
2Graduate School, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna 4031 Philippines
Most soils in the Philippines are acidic and are low in nutrients to support vigorous plant growth. The effect of applying both biochar and mycorrhizal fungi on plants under acidic soil is not yet well established. This study aimed to determine the influence of biochar from sugarcane bagasse (BSB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth traits, mycorrhization, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptakes of cacao seedlings under nursery conditions. The mycorrhizal soil inoculant contained 12 species belonging to the genera Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora, and Entrophospora. These AMF were developed and commercially produced at the National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (BIOTECH), University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB), Laguna, Philippines. The experiment was conducted for 6 mo in a nursery following a two-factor randomized complete block design with 12 replicates. Seeds of cacao var. UF18 were sown in polybags filled with 200 g oven-sterilized soil-sand mixture. After 1 mo, seedlings were transferred in polybags filled with 2 kg oven-sterilized acidic soil amended with nil to 15% biochar. The soil-biochar mixture was cured for 2 wk prior to seedling transfer. Inoculation with AMF was done during this stage, placed directly beneath the roots. At 6 mo, AMF inoculated cacao seedlings grown in BSB amended soil gave lighter biomass than those grown in no biochar soil. This may suggest that BSB could possibly induce mycorrhizal parasitism as there was a high mycorrhizal infection rate while constitutively having low N and P uptakes. However, the exact mechanisms on how biochar could possibly promote parasitism on plants inoculated with AMF are not yet known. Thus, further studies must be conducted.
Researches on biochar are expanding rapidly due to its potential for carbon sequestration (Lehmann 2007) and improvement of soil fertility (Jeffery et al. 2011, Glaser et al. 2002). Biochar is produced by pyrolyzing biomass under high-temperature and low-oxygen conditions (Lehmann 2007). The alkaline property of biochar supports its use as a soil amendment in acidic soil and for improving soil nutrient availability (Masulili et al. 2010, Muhammad et al. 2018). The amendment of biochar into the soil improves water availability for the plant – increasing soil pH along with nutrient availability and, thus, improving plant growth (Jeffery et al. 2011). The production of biochar from biomass pyrolysis is a great way to manage agricultural wastes (Kwapinski et al. 2010). . . . read more
AERTS R, CHAPIN FS. 2000. The mineral nutrition of wild plants revisited: A re-evaluation of processes and patterns. In: Fitter AH, Raffaelli DG eds. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press Inc., Adv Ecol Res 30: 1–67.
AGGANGAN NS, ALBANO AB, KASAHARA ES, RAGRAGIO EM. 2013. Survival, growth and Cu accumulation by non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal Jatropha curcas L. seedlings or cuttings in a grassland and in mine tailing soils. J Environ Sci Manage 16(2): 63–76.
BIEDERMAN L, HARPOLE S. 2013. Biochar and its effect on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: A meta-analysis. GCB Bioenergy 5: 202–214.
BLACK CA. 1993. Soil testing and lime requirement. In: Soil Fertility Evaluation and Control. Boca Raton, Fl: Lewis Publishers. p. 647–728.
BLACK CA, EVANS DD, DINAUER RC. 1965. Methods of soil analysis. Amer Soc Agron 9: 653–708.
BRAY RH, KURTZ LT. 1945. Determination of total, organic, and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Sci 59: 39–46.
BRUNDRETT MC, BOUGHER N, DELL B, GROOVE T, MALAJCZUK N. 1996. Working with Mycorrhizas in Forestry and Agriculture [ACIAR Monograph 32]. Canberra, Australia: Australian Center for International Agricultural Research. p. 187–193.
BÜCKING H, KAFLE A. 2015. Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the nitrogen uptake of plants: Current Knowledge and Research Gaps. Agron 5: 587–612.
CHAPMAN HD. 1965. Cation-exchange capacity. In: Black CA et al. eds. Methods of soil analysis. Am Soc Agron Monogr 9: 891–901.
CHEN WF, MENG J, HAN X, LAN Y, ZHANG WM. 2019. Past, present and future of biochar. Biochar 1: 75–87.
CHEN WF, ZHANG WM, MENG J. 2013. Advances and prospects in research of biochar utilization in agriculture. Sci Agric Sin 46(16): 3324–3333.
CHENG KL, BRAY RH. 1957. Determination of Calcium and Magnesium in Soil and Plant Material. Soil Science 72(6): 449–458.
COLLINS H, STREUBEL J, ALVA A, PORTER L, CHAVES B. 2013. Phosphorus uptake by potato from biochar amended with anaerobic digested dairy manure effluent. Agron J 105: 989–998.
CONVERSA G, BONASIA A, LAZZIZERA C, ELIA A. 2015. Influence of biochar, mycorrhizal inoculation, and fertilizer rate on growth and flowering of Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale L.) plants. Front Plant Sci 6: 429.
DELUCA TH, MACKENZIE MD, GUNDALE MJ, HOLBEN WE. 2006. Wildfire-produced charcoal directly influences nitrogen cycling in forest ecosystems. Soil Sci Soc Amer J 70: 448–453.
EL-NAGGAR A, SANG SL, JORG R, MUHAMMAD F, SONGE HOCHEOL, AJIT KS, ANDREW RZ, MAHTAB A, SABRY MS, YONG SO. 2019. Biochar application to low fertility soil: a review of current status and future prospects. Geoderma 337: 536–554.
ENDERS A, HANLEY K, WHITMAN T, JOSEPH S, LEHMANN J. 2012. Characterization of biochars to evaluate recalcitrance and agronomic performance. Biores Technol 114: 644–653.
GAUR A, ADHOLEYA A. 2004. Prospects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Curr Sci 86(4): 25.
GIOVANETTI M. MOSSE B. 1986. An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytol 84: 489–500.
GLASER G, LEHMANN J, ZECH W. 2002. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal- a review. Biol Fertil Soils 35: 219–230.
GREWELING T, PEECH M. 1965. Chemical Soil Tests. Agr Exp Sta Bull 960 (rev.): 47.
GUNDALE MJ, DELUCA TH. 2006. Temperature and substrate influence the chemical properties of charcoal in the ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir ecosystem. For Ecol Manage 231: 86–93.
HAWKINS HJ, JOHANSEN A, GEORGE E. 2000. Uptake and transport of organic and inorganic nitrogen by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 226: 275–285.
JACKSON ML.1958. Soil Chemical Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
JEFFERY S, VERHEIJEN FGA, VAN DER VELDE M, BASTOS AC. 2011. A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agric Ecosyst Environ 144: 175–187.
JOHNSON NC, GRAHAM JH, SMITH FA. 1997. Functioning of mycorrhizal associations along the mutualism-parasitism continuum. New Phytol 135: 575–585.
JOHNSON NC, GRAHAM JH. 2013. The continuum concept remains a useful framework for studying mycorrhizal functioning. Plant Soil 363: 411–419.
KOIDE RT, GOFF MD, DICKIE IA. 2000. Component growth efficiencies of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. New Phytol 148: 163-168.
KWAPINSKI W, BYRNE C, KRYACHKO E, WOLFRAM P, ADLEY C, LEAHY JJ, NOVOTNY EH, HAYES MHB. 2010. Biochar from biomass and waste. J Waste Biom Valor 1: 177.
LAIRD DA, BROWN RC, AMONETTE JE, LEHMANN J. 2009. Review of the pyrolysis platform for co-producing bio-oil and biochar. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefineries 3: 547–562.
LECROY C, MASIELLO CA, RUDGERS JA, HOCKADAY WC, SILBERG JJ. 2013. Nitrogen, biochar, and mycorrhizae: Alteration of the symbiosis and oxidation of the char surface. Soil Biol Biochem 58: 248–254.
LEHMANN J. 2007. Bio-energy in the black. Front Ecol Environ 5: 381–387.
LEHMANN J, DA SILVA JR, STEINER JP, NEHLS C, ZECH TW, GLASER B. 2003. Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological Anthrosol and a Ferrasol of the Central Amazon basin: Fertilizer, manure, and charcoal amendments. Plant Soil 249: 343–357.
LEHMANN J, RILLIG M, THIES J, MASIELLO C, HOCKADAY W, CROWLEY D. 2011. Biochar effects on soil biota – A review. Soil Biol Biochem 43(9): 1812–1836.
LI H, SMITH SE, HOLLOWAY RE, ZHU Y, SMITH FA. 2006. Arbusuclar mycorrhizal fungi contribute to phosphorous uptake by wheat grown in a phosphorous-fixing soil even in the absence of positive growth responses. New Phytol 172(3): 536–543.
LIU C, LIU F, RAVNSKOV S, RUBÆK GH, SUN Z, ANDERSON MN. 2016. Impact of wood biochar and Its Interactions with mycorrhizal fungi, phosphorus fertilization and irrigation strategies on potato growth. J Agron Crop Sci [ISSN 0931-2250].
MASULILI A, UTOMO WH, SYECHFANI MS. 2010. Rice husk biochar for rice based cropping system in acid soil. I. The characteristics of rice husk biochar and its influence on the properties of acid sulfate soils and rice growth in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. J Agric Sci 2(1): 39–47.
MAU AE, UTAMI SR. 2014. Effects of biochar amendment and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on availability of soil phosphorus and growth of maize. J Degrad Mining Lands Manage 1: 69–74.
[MSU] Michigan State University. 1989. User’s guide to MSTAT-C: Design, Management and Statistical Research Tool [MSTATC version 2.10 Computer Program]. East Lansing, MI.
MUHAMMAD S, LUKAS VZ, SAQIB B, ANEELA Y, AVELINOI N, MUHAMMAD AC, KASHIF AK, UMEED A, MUHAMMAD SR, MIRZA AM, RONGGUI H. 2018. A concise review of biochar application to agricultural soils to improve soil conditions and fight pollution. J Environ Manage 228: 429–440.
OHSOWSKI B, DUNFIELD K, KLIRONOMOS J, HART M. 2018. Response to biochar, compost, and mycorrhizal fungal amendments in post-mine sandpits. J Soc Ecol Restor 26(1): 63–72.
PEECH M. 1945. Determination of exchangeable cations and exchange capacity of soils-rapid micromethods utilizing centrifuge and spectrophotometer. Soil Sci. 59: 25–38.
PENG F, HE PW, LUO Y, LU X, LIANG Y, FU J. 2012. Adsorption of phosphate by biomass char deriving from fast pyrolysis of biomass waste. Clean Soil Air Water 40: 493–498.
PIETIKÄINEN J, KIIKKILÄ O, FRITZE H. 2000. Charcoal as a habitat for microbes and its effect on the microbial community of the underlying humus. Oikos 89: 231–242.
RAMÍREZ JG, OSORNO L, OSORIO NW. 2016. Presence of mycorrhizal fungi and a fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. in the rhizosphere of cacao in two agroecosystems and their effects on cacao seedling growth. Agron Colomb 34(3): 385–392.
RILLIG MC, WAGNER M, SALEM M, ANTUNES PM, GEORGE C, RAMKE HG, TITIRICI MM, ANTONIETTI M. 2010. Material derived from hydrothermal carbonization: effects on plant growth and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Appl Soil Ecol 45: 238–242.
RUSSELL BJ, SHELTON JP, WALSH A. 1957. An atomic-absorption spectrophotometer and its application to the analysis of solutions. Spectrochimica Acta 8(6): 317–328.
SINGH LP, GILL SS, TUTEJA N. 2011. Unraveling the role of fungal symbionts in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Plant Signal Behav 6: 175–191.
SMITH FA, SMITH SE. 2011. What is the significance of the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of many economically important crop plants? Plant Soil 348: 63–79.
SMITH FA, SMITH SE. 2013. How useful is the mutualism-parasitism continuum of arbuscular mycorrhizal functioning? Plant Soil 363: 7–18.
SMITH FA, GRACE EJ, SMITH SE. 2009. More than a carbon economy: nutrient trade and ecological sustainability in facultative arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses. New Phytol 182: 347–358. doi: 10.1111/j.1469- 8137.2008.02753.x
STEINER C, TEIXEIRA WG, LEHMANN J, ZECH W. 2004. Microbial response to charcoal amendments of highly weathered soils and Amazonian Dark Earths in Central Amazonia – Preliminary results. In: Glaser B, Woods WI eds. Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Time and Space. Berlin: Springer. p. 195–212.
THIES JE, RILLIG MC. 2009. Characteristics of Biochar: Biological Properties. In: Biochar for Environmental Management Lehmann J, Joseph S eds. p. 85–102.
TRESEDER K, ALLEN M. 2002. Direct nitrogen and phosphorous limitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: A model and field test. New Phytol 155(3). https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00470.x
UZOMA KC, INOUE M, ANDRY H, FUJIMAKI H, ZAHOOR A, NISHIHARA E. 2011. Effect of cow manure biochar on maize productivity under sandy soil condition. Soil Use Manage 27(2): 205–212.
WARNOCK D, LEHMANN J, KUYPER T, RILLIG M. 2007. Mycorrhizal responses to biochar in soil—Concepts and mechanisms. Plant Soil 300: 9–20.
WARNOCK D. 2009. Arbuscular mycorrhizal responses to biochars in soils – Potential mechanisms of interaction and observed responses in controlled environments [Master’s Thesis]. University of Montana, Missoula, MT.
YUAN JH, XU RK, WANG N, LI JY. 2011. Amendment of acid soils with crop residues and biochars. Pedosphere 21: 302–308.