Aboveground Biomass Characterization of a Young Kawayan Tinik Plantation (Bambusa blumeana J.A. & J.H. Schultes) in Nueva Ecija, Philippines for Bioenergy Production
Rosalie C. Mendoza1*, Ramon A. Razal1, Willie P. Abasolo1,
Roberto G. Visco2, and Canesio D. Predo2
1Department of Forest Products and Paper Science, College of Forestry and
Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Los Baños,
Laguna, Region IVA 4031 Philippines
2Institute of Renewable Natural Resources, College of Forestry and Natural Resources,
University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Los Baños,
Laguna, Region IVA 4031 Philippines
This study assessed the potential of young kawayan tinik (Bambusa blumeana J.A. & J.H. Schultes) plantation for energy production by determining changes in biomass and calorific content over a three-year period. Yearly determination of biomass and culm growth was done for the plantation in Fort Magsaysay Military Reservation (FMMR) in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, by harvesting entire aboveground culms and non-culm portions of the plant. Culms were separated from branches and leaves and culm dimensions, height and diameter, and mass were obtained for both the culm and non-culm portions. Basal clump diameter was also measured and the number of culms per clump was counted. The chemical properties (volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash) of the culm and the branches plus leaves (B+L) were likewise determined. Calculations were done for individual culm and total aboveground dry biomass per clump. Analysis of variance showed that both basal clump diameter and culm height were significantly affected by clump age, while culm number per clump and culm diameter did not vary significantly from year to year. Aboveground dry biomass increased with clump age. Chemical properties except for the ash content of the culms were all significantly affected by clump age. Analysis of variance also showed significant effect of clump age to the measured gross calorific values (GCVs) of culms while the corresponding value for B+L samples did not vary with clump age.
The need for renewable energy resources cannot be overemphasized in view of constantly increasing oil prices, global warming and climate change, and depletion of fossil fuel sources. Potential sources of bioenergy from different forms of biomass are being explored and their properties are being determined as they can provide valuable information on the long-term economic value and sustainability of these alternative energy sources.
Bamboo as a renewable energy resource is of great interest, with more than 10 million tons produced annually – almost all of it from Asia (Panayotou and Ashton 1992). Currently, many countries from around the world are producing charcoals, briquettes, and fuel pellets from bamboo. . . . . read more
BANIK RL. 2000. Silviculture and field guide to priority bamboos of Bangladesh and South Asia. Bangladesh Forest Research Institute, Chittagong. p. 1–187.
BANIK RL. 2015. Morphology and Growth. In: Bamboo: The plant and its uses. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. p. 43–89.
BANIK RL, ISLAM SAMN. 2005. Leaf dynamics and above ground biomass growth in Dendrocalamus longispathus Kurz. J Bamboo Rattan 4(2): 143–150.
COLIS JC. 1996. Evaluation of site quality preferences of kawayan tinik (Bambusa blumeana Schultes) at Dumanjug bamboo production project, Dumanjug, Cebu [MS Thesis]. University of the Philippines Los Baños. 91p. (Available at the UPLB Main Library)
DECIPULO MS, OCKERBY S, MIDMORE DJ. 2009. Managing clumps of Dendrocalamus asper in Bukidnon, the Philippines. Australian Center for International Agricultural Research Proceedings 129: 36–45.
DRANSFIELD S, WIDJAJA EA eds. 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 7. Bamboos. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. 189p.
ESPILOY ZB. 1996. Properties and Utilization of Philippine Bamboos. FPRDI Research Chair Paper Presentation; 1996 Jul 04; FPRDI Conference Hall, FPRDI, College, Laguna, Philippines.
EVANGELISTA AA. 2012. Production and characterization of fuel pellets from kawayan tinik (Bambusa blumeana Bl. ex Schult. f.) and bikal [Schizostachyum diffusum (Blco.) Merr.] [MS Thesis]. College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños. 75p. (Available at CFNR Library)
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2001. Plantations and wood energy. Report based on the work of D. J. Mead [Forest Plantation Thematic Papers, Working Paper 5] (unpublished). FAO, Rome. p. 1–20. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-ac125e.pdf on 27 Jul 2019.
GANESH A. 2003. Bamboo characterization for thermochemical conversion and feasibility study of bamboo-based gasification and charcoal making agency. Energy Systems Engineering of Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai.
GROVER PD, MISHRA SK. 1996. Biomass briquetting: technology and practice [Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia, Field Document No. 46]. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome.
KOZLOWSKI TT, KRAMER PJ, PALLARDY SJ. 1991. The physiological ecology of woody plants. Cambrigde, MA: Academic Press Inc. 657p.
MAINOO AA, APPIAH FU. 1996. Growth, wood yield and energy characteristics of Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and Senna siamea at age four years. Ghana Journal of Forestry 3: 69–79.
MIDMORE DJ. 2009. Overview of the ACIAR bamboo project outcomes. In: Silvicultural management of bamboo in the Philippines and Australia for shoots and timber.
Midmore DJ ed. Proceedings of a workshop held in Los Baños, the Philippines, 2006 Nov 22–23. ACIAR Proceedings 129: 7–12.
MITCHUAL SJ, FRIMPONG-MENSAH K, DARKWA NA. 2014. Evaluation of fuel properties of six tropical hardwood timber species for briquettes. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems 4: 1–9.
PANAYOTOU T, ASHTON PS. 1992. Not by timber alone: Economics and ecology for sustaining tropical forests. Washington, DC: Island Press. 282p.
PANDA H. 2011. Bamboo plantation and utilization handbook. Delhi: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc. 568p.
PLEGUEZUELO CRR, ZUAZO VHD, BIELDERS C, BOCANEGRA JAJ, PEREATORRES F. 2015. Bioenergy farming using woody crops: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35(1): 95–119.
RAO AN, RAMANATHA RAO V, WILLIAMS JT eds. 1998. Priority species of bamboo and rattan. IPGRI-APO, Serdang, Malaysia. 116p.
RASAT MSM, WAHAB R, MAZLAN M, AHMAD MI, AMINI MHM, NAZRI MN, RAHMAN WMNWA, RAZAB MKAA, YUNUS AAM. 2016. Preliminary study on properties of small diameter wild Leucaena leucocephala species as potential biomass energy sources. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 11(9): 6128–6137.
RAZAL RA. 2013. Unpublished results on the proximate chemical analysis of six bamboo species.
RAZAL, RA, PALIJON AM. 2009. Non-wood forest products of the Philippines. UPLB College of Forestry and Natural Resources. College, Laguna. 345p.
ROSARIO JI. 2011. Yield prediction models for the natural stands of kawayan tinik (Bambusa blumeana J.A. & J.H. Schultes) in Ilocos Norte, Philippines [PhD Dissertation]. College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños. 225p. (Available at CFNR Library)
SADIKU N, SADIKU IB, OLUYEGE AO. 2016. Analysis of the calorific and fuel value index of bamboo as a source of renewable biomass feedstock for energy generation in Nigeria. Lignocellulose 5(1): 34–49.
SCURLOCK, JMO, DAYTON DC, HAMES B. 2000. Bamboo: An overlooked biomass resource? Biomass and Bioenergy 19(2000): 229–244.
SEMANA JA. 1967. The Kraft pulping qualities of some Philippine bamboos. TAPPI. 8: 416–419.
SHANMUGHAVEL P. PEDDAPPAIAH RS. MUTHUKUMAR T. 2001. Biomass production in an age series of Bambusa bambos plantations. Biomass Bioenergy 20: 113–117.
SILVIANA S, BAYU WJ. 2018. Silicon conversion from bamboo leaf silica by magnesiothermic reduction for development of li-ion battery anode. MATEC Web of Conferences 156: 1–5.
SINGNAR P, NATH AJ, DAS AK. 2015. Culm characteristics and volume-weight relationship of a forest bamboo (Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz) from northeast India. Journal of Forestry Research 26(4): 841–849.
THOKCHOM A. YADAVA D. 2017. Biomass, carbon stock and sequestration potential of Schizostachyum pergracile bamboo forest of Manipur, north east India. Tropical Ecology 58(1): 23–32.
TIONGCO LE. 1997. Edaphic factors are related to productivity and nutrient uptake of kauayan tinik (Bambusa blumeana Schultes F.) in Bukidnon [MS Thesis]. University of the Philippines Los Baños. 91p. (Available at the UPLB Main Library)
UCHIMURA E. 1978. Ecological studies on the cultivation of bamboo forest in the Philippines [Bulletin No. 301]. Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan. p. 79–118.
VIRTUCIO FD, ROXAS CA. 2003. Bamboo production in the Philippines. Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, College, Laguna. 202p.
YEN TM. 2016. Culm height development, biomass accumulation and carbon storage in an initial growth stage for a fast‑growing moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). Bot Stud 57(10): 1–9. DOI 10.1186/s40529-016-0126-x
YEN TM, LEE JS. 2011. Comparing aboveground carbon sequestration between moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) and China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) forests based on the allometric model. Forest Ecology and Management 261: 995–1002.
YOKOHAMA S, MATSUMURA Y eds. 2008. The Asian Biomass Handbook: A Guide for Biomass Production and Utilization. The Japan Institute of Energy. Retrieved from http://www.jie.or.jp/biomass/AsiaBiomassHandbook/English/All_E-080917.pdf on 04 Aug 2017.