Physicochemical Characterization of Used Coconut Oil from Vacuum Frying of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) Pulp EVIARC Sweet Variety as Affected by Frying Cycle
Jason D. Braga1, Roberta D. Lauzon2, and Lorina A. Galvez2*
1Institute of Food Science and Technology
College of Agriculture, Food, Environment, and Natural Resources
Cavite State University, Indang, Cavite, Philippines
2Department of Food Science and Technology
College of Agriculture and Food Science, Visayas State University
Baybay City, Leyte, Philippines
This study was conducted to determine the quality of coconut oil (CO) used in a 2-h jackfruit pulp vacuum frying for 20 frying cycles. The % free fatty acid (FFA), acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), moisture content (MC), and color of the CO used in vacuum frying was determined for unheated oil and oil after the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th cycle of frying. The FFA (0.273–0.554%), AV (0.543–1.102 NaOH/kg oil), PV (4.983–45.739 meq oxygen/kg), and MC (1.016–1.079%) showed significant increase (p <0.05) in the oil as the number of frying cycle increased that dictated the quality of the used CO. Hunter L and b showed significant (p < 0.05) effect on oil as the number of frying cycle increases, while Hunter a indicated insignificant effect. Based on the standard set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) for refined CO (10 meq O2/kg oil), the oil quality is still safe after the third frying cycle, which conforms with the set standards for PV and AV. The pairing of these two tests is a good measure of oil quality assessment.
Vegetable oil (crude, refined, bleached, and deodorized) is one of the main dietary components in the day to life food consumption and is used in nearly all types of food preparations – including frying, baking, sautéing, dressing, marinating, and extrusion cooking. They are generally obtained from oilseeds (i.e., mustard, sunflower, cottonseed, corn, and coconut); food legumes (i.e., soybean, peanut); nuts (i.e., almond); or the soft substances of fruits (i.e., olives). They are primarily composed of triacylglycerols, which consist of three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol. The minor components of vegetable oil are FFAs, fat-soluble vitamins, pigments, phospholipids, waxes, sterols, and fatty alcohols (Foster et al. 2009). Vegetable oils contain different kinds of fatty acids and their compositions are widely varied; however, one type of fatty acid is generally predominant over the other fatty acids. The physical and chemical characteristics of vegetable oils are influenced by the quantity of fatty acid and the place, where it is positioned on the glycerol moiety (AOCS 2006). . . . read more
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