Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI) Profile of the Philippine Helicostylinae (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Camaenidae)
Gizelle A. Batomalaque1,4,*, Gerard Clinton L. Que1,
Tyrill Adolf B. Itong5, Anna Regina L. Masanga1,
Emmanuel Ryan C. de Chavez3, and Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla1,2
1Insitute of Biology, College of Science,
University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines
2Natural Sciences Research Institute,
University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines
3Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences,
University of the Philippines Los Baños 4031 Laguna, Philippines
4Department of Biodiversity, Earth and Environmental Sciences,
College of Arts and Sciences, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
5College of Science, University of the Philippines Cebu, Cebu City 6000 Philippines
The Philippines is the center of radiation of the land snail subfamily Helicostylinae, with around 253 recognized species. Despite their morphological diversity, research on their biology and taxonomy is lacking. We present here the first mitochondrial COI profiles of 32 species of Philippine helicostyline land snails. With the addition of sequences downloaded from GenBank, we tested the utility of the COI for species identification. Relative distributions of intraspecific and interspecific distances overlapped; hence, no barcoding gap was observed. However, 90% of uncorrected interspecific comparisons can distinguish species at 14% genetic distance or lower. Furthermore, the COI barcodes could not discriminate several co-distributed species that have similar conchological features, which should be flagged for taxonomic re-evaluation.
The Helicostylinae, a subfamily under family Camaenidae (sensu Bouchet et al. 2017) and order Stylommatophora, are hermaphroditic ground and tree snails whose center of diversity is the Philippine Islands (Parkinson et al. 1987, Abbott 1989, de Chavez et al. 2015) and whose distribution extends to Taiwan, the Moluccas, and the smaller islands off the coast of Borneo (Schileyko 2004, Schilthuizen et al. 2013). Members of this subfamily exhibit a range in shell forms from discoidal, depressed and keeled, globose, to elongated conical forms (Parkinson et al. 1987). Within the Philippines, different helicostyline species vary in distributions, with most occurring in single islands (e.g., Anixa siquijorensis in Siquijor Is. and Helicostyla (Calocochlea) chrysocheila in Luzon Is.) and some occurring in multiple adjacent islands (e.g., Leytia fragilis in Samar and Leyte islands and Trachystyla cryptica in the islands of Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao). There are about 245 species (Batomalaque n/p, Faustino 1930, Richardson 1983, Abbott 1989) belonging to 23 genera (Schileyko 2004, Bouchet et al. 2017). The current taxonomy of the helicostylines is based on shell morphology, although the reproductive anatomy for some species has been described (Schileyko 2004). No molecular work has been done to evaluate their current classification, and phylogenetic relationships among the species are unknown. . . . read more
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