Radiation Sterilization of Mexican Fruit Fly Anastrepha ludens (Leow) Based on Pupal Eye Color
Sotero S. Resilva1*, Emilio Hernández2, and Glenda B. Obra1
1Agriculture Research Section, Atomic Research Division,
Department of Science and Technology – Philippine Nuclear Research Institute,
Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
2Subdirección de Desarollo de Métodos, Programa Moscafrut
(SAGARPA-IICA), Camino a los Cacahotales s/n, 30860 Metapa de
Domínguez, Chiapas, Mexico
This paper reports on the documented pupal eye color changes of Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Leow) at different holding temperatures. In holding mature larval samples at 15, 19, and 26 ºC (standard holding temperature); 28 ºC; and at environmental temperature (24–34 ºC), the development of pupae lasted 49, 33, 16, 15, and 16 d, respectively. Holding pupae at lower temperature delays pupal development and slows down progression of eye color changes. This is very important in manipulating pupal development, especially when uncontrolled problems occur during sterile insect technique (SIT) operations. The recommended timing of pupal irradiation for A. ludens at 26 ºC (standard holding temperature) is 2 d before adult emergence, where the pupae are 12–14 d old and the eye colors are dark brown, very dark brown, and dark grayish green. Using this eye colors as the reference guide for irradiation of pupae, the right age when held at 15, 19, and 28 ºC and at environmental temperature (24–34 ºC) was 41–45, 28–31, 11–13, and 12–14 d old, respectively. A table using documented and close-up photograph of pupal eye color can be used as a reference guide to determine the best time for the irradiation of pupae in an SIT program.
Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Leow) is the major pest of citrus fruits in commercial orchards situated in higher altitudes of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (Aluja et al. 1996, Thomas & Loera-Gallardo 1998). It is also one of the most significant pests of commercially grown fruit from the southern United States to northern Argentina (Aluja 1994, Aluja et al. 1996). This pest causes major damage in the field and often cause quarantines preventing the free movement and trade of fresh fruits, which are hosts of this serious pest. Sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly approach of insect control that involves mass rearing, sterilizing by ionizing radiation, and releasing sterile flies in the target area in numbers large enough to outcompete their wild counterparts (Knippling 1955, Dyck et al. 2005). In many cases, this type of insect pest control will lead to eventual eradication of the target pest population (Hendrichs & Robinson 2009). . . . . read more
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