Insecticidal Activity of Crude Ethanolic Extracts of Selected Philippine Plants against Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella Linnaeus
Abigaile Mia V. Javier1*, Virginia R. Ocampo2, Flor A. Ceballo2, and Pio A. Javier2
1Agriculture Research Section, Atomic Research Division,
Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology,
Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines
2Institute of Weed Science, Entomology, and Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and
Food Science, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna 4031 Philippines
The use of plant extracts could be an alternative method to the conventional insecticides for pest control. The potential of ethanolic extracts from Lantana camara Linnaeus, Coleus amboinicus Loureiro, Alpinia pyramidata Blume, Curcuma longa Linn., and Catharanthus roseus Linn. as insecticide against second larval instar diamondback moth – Plutella xylostella Linn. – was evaluated in the laboratory through contact and residual toxicities, antifeedant activity, repellency, and growth regulator activity. Among the five plants, L. camara was the most toxic against P. xylostella through topical application (LD50 = 99.17 µg/g larva) and showed the highest antifeedant activity at 125 µg/mL acetone. As demonstrated using leaf residue film method, Cu. longa was the most toxic against P. xylostella (LC50 = 206.22 µg/mL) and also showed the highest repellency at 125 µg/mL. Cu. longa and Ca. roseus exhibited high antifeedant activity at 500 µg/mL. L. camara and A. pyramidata showed remarkable insect growth regulatory activities against P. xylostella. L. camara showed high larval and pupal mortalities, while A. pyramidata showed the highest number of abnormal adults produced. Among the ethanolic extracts, L. camara was the most promising because it consistently showed high contact toxicity plus antifeedant and remarkable insect growth regulatory activities against P. xylostella. Moreover, L. camara provided the highest ethanolic recovery (2.645%) among the test plants. In view of overall insecticidal potential of L. camara, can be exploited as a possible source of alternative insecticide against P. xylostella.
The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of crucifers throughout the world. P. xylostella causes more than 90% crop loss in the area of outbreaks in Southeast Asia, resulting to 52% loss in marketable yield (Shelton et al. 2004). It is estimated that total costs associated with control of DBM is US$4 billion to US$5 billion. This estimate includes management cost due to pests, which is more of the use of insecticides, yield loss due to pest, and effect of climate. Among continents, the highest annual cost due to DBM control on cabbages based on weekly application of insecticides is in Asia ($695,435,398), followed by Africa ($46,097,772) and North and Central America ($42,129,738). In the Philippines, estimated cost for DBM management on cabbages and other Brassicas based on farmer’s practice is $1,440,777, while estimated cost based on weekly application of insecticide is $3,317,580 (Zalucki et al. 2012). The usual control method employed against P. xylostella includes the use of synthetic pesticides. However, the indiscriminate and improper use of chemical insecticides has led to the death of non-target organisms, environmental degradation, and emergence of insect pests that are resistant to the commonly used insecticides (Mota-Sanchez et al. 2002). Hence, the use of safe alternatives such as botanical products is increasing because they are effective, are often non-toxic to natural enemies, and have low environmental impact. Moreover, plant secondary chemicals can also be used as medicines, food and beverage-flavorings, fragrances, etc. . . . . read more
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