Chemiluminescence Detection of Chlorpyrifos via Luminol-H2O2-Ferricyanide System using Microcontroller-based Photometer

Angelo Gabriel E. Buenaventura1,2 and Allan Christopher C. Yago1,2*

1Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines
2Natural Sciences Research Institute, University of the Philippines Diliman,
Quezon City 1101 Philippines

*Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



A low-cost photometer for chemiluminescence (CL) detection of chlorpyrifos (CPF) was constructed based on Arduino microcontroller, Si photodiode, and operational amplifier. The CPF detection via CL is based on the decrease in light intensity of the sensing solution (luminol-H2O2-Fe(CN)63–-CPF) as compared to the blank solution (luminol-H2O2 Fe(CN)63–). The decrease in light intensity is due to the known reaction of organophosphates with H2O2 and luminol, thereby consuming the reactants for CL reaction. The change in response (ΔICL) was determined by the difference between the response of the blank solution (IB) and the sensing solution (Iss). Different parameters for both blank and sensing solutions were optimized. A linearly decreasing response with increasing CPF concentration was found between 0.7 ppm and 2.45 ppm CPF (2.00–7.00 μM CPF), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.663 ppm (1.89 μM). The system was shown to be selective mainly toward organophosphate pesticides as non-organophosphate herbicides – such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and atrazine – did not show significant changes in response as compared to blank solution.



Organophosphates are a class of insecticides that primarily act by irreversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for acetylcholine hydrolysis (Lukaszewicz-Hussain 2010). Irreversible inhibition of AChE can lead to build-up of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which interferes with muscular response and produce serious symptoms in vital organs (Mulchandani et al. 2001). Despite the toxicity of organophosphates, certain organophosphates are still allowed to be used in many countries. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate insecticide, is widely used in agriculture and household applications. CPF and its derivative methyl-chlorpyrifos are the main active ingredients in insecticide formulations widely used to control insect and arthropod pests on agricultural crops such as grains, cotton, nuts, and fruits. Urban applications of CPF include controlling pests on lawn and ornamental plants (Mauriz et al. 2006). Due to the wide usage of CPF, point-source and agricultural discharges of CPF became responsible for aquatic life toxicity . . . . . read more



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