PJS 147 No. 4
Theoretical Risk Ranking of Commonly Consumed Processed Philippine Fish Species with and without Phosphorus-containing Additives
Maria Patricia V. Azanza, Karina Angela D. Bautista, and Vallerie B. Azarcon
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Home Economics,
University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
A framework of theoretical calculations based on the review of published information was used to determine possible risks due to dietary phosphorus in identified commonly consumed Philippine fish species – including tilapia, milkfish, round scad, and yellowfin tuna. The reported individual consumption data and mean body weight of various age groups starting from preschool (6 mo – 5 y/o) to elderly (≥60 y/o) in the Philippines, the standardized maximum tolerable daily intake of phosphorus, and the phosphorus levels in EP of fish species were utilized to calculate worst-case scenario risk values. The background phosphorus levels of fish species were based on their corresponding reported natural mineral content, while total phosphorus content was calculated from the background phosphorus in addition to the allowable maximum guideline value for phosphorus additive in processed fish products. Theoretical results showed that all age groups are at low risk in the consumption of the identified fish species, with or without phosphorus-containing additives, based on the ranking. The study recommended the validation of the framework of calculation by its application to other food additives. A supplemental study for the validation of the background phosphorus levels in raw test fish species and the total phosphorus levels in processed products with the additive commercially sold in the market was also recommended.
The scientific ranking of food hazards associated with human exposure per food type could usher the establishment of strategies from a well-defined starting point necessary for risk-based priority setting and proper allocation of resources strictly focused on the development of policies and actions for addressing them (EFSA 2012; Sumner & Ross 2002). Risk ranking has been reported to be the first determining step before a comprehensive risk-based surveillance should be done (Berg 2008; van Asselt et al. 2013). . . . read more
ANGGRAENI D, ANDARWULAN N, ADAWIYAH DR. 2017. Phosphorus Contents of Processed Food in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Chemistry 29(8): 1771–1778.
BARBA CVC, CABRERA MIZ. 2008. Recommended energy and nutrient intakes for Filipinos 2002. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 17(S2): 399–404.
BERG C. 2008. Amtliche Probenahme von Lebensmitteln auf Risikobasis. Archiv Für Lebensmittel-Hygiene 59(4): 130–136.
BORLONGAN IG, SATOH S. 2001. Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal). Aquaculture Research 32: 26–32.
BOYD CE. 2004. Farm-Level Issues in Aquaculture Certification: Tilapia. Report commissioned by WWF–US. Alabama.
[CFIA] Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2016. Annex C: Use of Phosphate Salts and Nitrites in the Preparation of Meat Products. Retrieved from http://www.inspection.gc.ca/food/meat-and-poultry-products/manual-of-procedures/chapter-4/annex-c/eng/1370525150531/1370525354148 on 27 Feb 2018.
CARRIGAN A, KLINGER A, CHOQUETTE SS, LUZURIAGA-MCPHERSON A, BELL EK, DARNELL B, GUTIÉRREZ OM. 2014. Contribution of Food Additives to Sodium and Phosphorus Content of Diets Rich in Processed Foods. Journal of Renal Nutrition 24(1): 13–19.e1.
CHEN M. 2011. Abuse of Certain Chemicals as Food Additives. Food Safety Focus. Retrieved from http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/multimedia/multimedia_pub/multimedia_pub_fsf_57_02.html on 27 Feb 2018.
[CAC] Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2017. General Standard for Food Additives: CODEX STAN 192–1995. International Food.
D’ALLESANDRO C, PICCOLI GB, CUPISTI A. 2015. The “phosphorus pyramid”: A visual tool for dietary phosphate management in dialysis and CKD patients. BMC Nephrol. 16: 9. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-16-9 Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4361095/ on 16 Jul 2018.
DALZELL P. 1993. V. Biology: Food and Feeding Habits. In: Wright A, Hill L, Hill L (eds.). Nearshore Marine Resources of the South Pacific: Information for Fisheries Development and Management. Suva: Institute of Pacific Studies.
[DOST–FNRI] Department of Science and Technology – Food and Nutrition Research Institute. 2015a. 2nd National Nutrition Summit: 8th National Nutrition Survey. Taguig City, Metro Manila, Philippines.
[DOST–FNRI] Department of Science and Technology – Food and Nutrition Research Institute. 2015b. Philippine Nutrition Facts and Figures 2013: Anthropometric Survey. Taguig City, Metro Manila, Philippines.
[DOST–FNRI] Department of Science and Technology – Food and Nutrition Research Institute. 2015c. Philippine Nutrition Facts and Figures 2013: Dietary Survey. Taguig City, Metro Manila, Philippines.
[DOST–FNRI] Department of Science and Technology – Food and Nutrition Research Institute. 2018. Philippine Food Composition Tables. Retrieved from http://i.fnri.dost.gov.ph/fct/library/ on 16 Jul 2018.
EUROMONITOR INTERNATIONAL. 2017. Passport: Processed Meat and Seafood in the Philippines.
[EFSA] European Food Safety Authority. 2012. Scientific Opinion on the development of a risk ranking framework on biological hazards. EFSA Journal 10(6): 2724.
[EFSA] European Food Safety Authority. 2013. Assessment of one published review on health risks associated with phosphate additives in food. EFSA Journal 11(11): 1–27.
[EPC] European Parliament and Council. 2010. Food additives other than colours and sweeteners. Directive No 95/2/EC of 20 Feb 1995. Retrieved from https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/6a238118-e16a-436c-ba34-3bfe00afa7ea/language-en on 27 Feb 2018.
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2000. Biological Characteristics of Tuna. Text by Michel Goujon and Jacek Majkowski. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Rome. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/16082/en on 27 Feb 2018.
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2008. Forage Species. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/4290/en on 27 Feb 2018.
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2016. Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles: The Republic of the Philippines. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department.
GOUJON M, MAJKOWSKI J. 2000. Biological Characteristics of Tuna. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Rome. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/16082/en on 27 Feb 2018.
KARALIS M, MURPHY-GUTEKUNST L. 2006. Enhanced Foods: Hidden Phosphorus and Sodium in Foods Commonly Eaten. Journal of Renal Nutrition 16(1): 79–81.
LAMPILA LE. 2013. Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1301(1): 37–44.
LOW F, LIN HM, GERRARD JA, CRESSEY PJ, SHAW IC. 2004. Ranking the risk of pesticide dietary intake. Pest Manag Sci. 60: 842-848. DOI: 10.1002/ps.904.
MACABASCO DR. 2011. A Brief on the Processed Food and Beverage Industry in the Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/industry-markets-and-trade/international-agri-food-market-intelligence/asia/market-intelligence/a-brief-on-the-processed-food-and-beverage-industry-in-the-philippines/?id=1410083148762 on 9 Feb 2018.
MOURENTE G, TOCHER D. 2009. Tuna Nutrition and Feeds: Current Status and Future Perspectives. Reviews in Fisheries Science 17. DOI: 10.1080/10641260902752207
MURRAY J, BURT JR. 2001. The Composition of Fish. Ministry of Technology – Torry Research Station. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/tan/x5916e/x5916e01.htm on 16 Jul 2018.
NEEDHAM S, FUNGE-SMITH S. 2015. The consumption of fish and fish products in the Asia-Pacific region based on household surveys. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
NOORI N, SIMS, JJ, KOPPLE JD, SHAH A, COLMAN S, SHINABERGER CS, BROSS R, MEHROTRA R, KOVESDY CP, KALANTAR-ZADEH K. 2010. Organic and Inorganic Dietary Phosphorus and Its Management in Chronic Kidney Disease. IJKD. 4: 89–100.
[PSA] Philippine Statistics Authority. 2014. 2013 Commodity Fact Sheet. Quezon City, Philippines.
[PSA] Philippine Statistics Authority. 2015. 2014 Commodity Fact Sheet. Quezon City, Philippines.
[PSA] Philippine Statistics Authority. 2016. 2015 Commodity Fact Sheet. Quezon City, Philippines.
[PSA] Philippine Statistics Authority. 2017a. 2016 Commodity Fact Sheet. Quezon City, Philippines.
[PSA] Philippine Statistics Authority. 2017b. Food Consumption and Nutrition: Report No. 2017-6. Agricultural Indicators System. Quezon City, Philippines. Retrieved from https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2013 APIS Final Report.pdf on 9 Feb 2018.
RITZ E, HAHN K, KETTELER M, KUHLMANN MK, MANN J. 2012. Phosphate Additives in Food – A Health Risk. Review Article. Deutsches Arzteblatt International 109(3): 49–55.
ROY PK, WITTEN PE, HALL BK, LALL SP. 2002. Effects of dietary phosphorus on bone growth and mineralisation of vertebrae in haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 27(1): 35–48.
SAVICA V, MAIOLINO G, CALÒ LA. 2016. To reconsider (limit) the use of phosphate based food and beverages additives. A real need for health preservation. Clinical Nutrition 35(1): 240.
STATISTA. 2018. Retail sales value of frozen processed food in the Philippines from 2014 to 2018 (in million U.S. dollars). Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/757806/retail-sales-value-of-frozen-processed-food-in-philippines/ on 27 Feb 2018.
SUMNER J, ROSS T. 2002. A semi-quantitative seafood safety risk assessment. International Journal of Food Microbiology 77(1–2): 55–59.
TRAUTVETTER U, JAHREIS G, KIEHNTOPF M, GLEI M. 2015. Consequences of a high phosphorus intake on mineral metabolism and bone remodeling in dependence of calcium intake in healthy subjects – A randomized placebo-controlled human intervention study. Nutrition Journal 15(1): 7.
URIBARRI J. 2009. Phosphorus Additives in Food and their Effect in Dialysis Patients. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 4(8): 1290–92.
URIBARRI J, CALVO MS. 2003. Hidden sources of phosphorus in the typical American diet: does it matter in nephrology? Seminars in Dialysis 16(3): 186–8.
[USFDA] US Food and Drug Administration. 2017. Substances Generally Regarded as Safe. Code of Federal Regulations Volume 6(Title 21): Part 182.
VAN ASSELT ED, VAN DER SPIEGEL M, NOORDAM MY, PIKKEMAAT MG, VAN DER FELS-KLERX HJ. 2013. Risk ranking of chemical hazards in food-A case study on antibiotics in the Netherlands. Food Research International 54(2): 1636–42.
[WHO] World Health Organization. 2018. Phosphoric Acid. Evaluations of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/food-additives-contaminants-jecfa-database/chemical.aspx?chemID=2530 on 16 Jul 2018.