Glue and Preservative Effects on the Properties and Durability of Engineered Bamboo Boards

Marina A. Alipon*, Carlos M. Garcia, and Elvina O. Bondad

Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI),
Department of Science and Technology (DOST), College, Laguna 4031 Philippines


*Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



The effect of glue and preservative treatments on the physico-mechanical properties and durability against bamboo-destroying insects, respectively, of engineered bamboo boards from kauayan-tinik (Bambusa blumeana J.A. & J.H. Schultes) and giant bamboo [Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes f.) Backer ex Heyne] were evaluated.  Costs of glues to bind the bamboo slats and chemical treatments were computed. Six glue types were used: polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) for interior and exterior use (Glue 1); PVAc for interior use (Glue 2); urea formaldehyde (UF, Glue 3); Glue 3 + 5% isocyanate (Glue 4); Glue 3 + 1.5% isocyanate (Glue 5); and phenol formaldehyde (PF) (Glue 6). The chemical used included: permethrin (T1); fenvalerate (T2); deltamethrin (T3); propiconazole (T4); deltamethrin + propiconazole (T5); and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate.(DOT, T6) Standard procedures were applied in evaluating the physical (relative density and moisture content) and mechanical (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity in static bending, hardness, and shear) properties of the bamboo boards. Engineered bamboo samples glued with PF and UF did not pass the US Formaldehyde Emission Limits (FEL) for composite wood products. However, both passed the FEL for composite wood products in Japan, although UF fell in the average limit category. Overall, the combination of PVAc + deltamethrin is highly recommended for high-end products such as housing components (floor tiles, balusters, windows, and doors). The UF + deltamethrin combination was also cost-effective. However, the strength properties of UF – particularly shear which measures the bonding strength of glue – was significantly lower than samples glued with PVAc.



In recent years, the importance of bamboo as a renewable natural resource has received international recognition due to worldwide concern about the destruction of tropical rainforests, the increasing demand for forest products, and the need for the sustainable supply of forest resources. Forestry statistics showed that Philippine forest covers was reduced from 17,025,111 ha in 1976 to 6,839,832 ha. Consequently, EO No. 3 dated 2011 imposes a moratorium on the harvesting of timber in natural and second-growth forest. On the other hand, bamboo is among those exempted in the moratorium. It showed promising potential as alternative materials to timber. . . . read more



ALIPON MA., FIDEL MM, BONDAD EO. 2005. Bonding Strength Evaluation of Modified Commercial Glues on Bamboo and Bamboo-Wood Combination. In: Frihart C (ed.). Proceedings of a Symposium on Wood Adhesives 2005. 2–4 Nov 2005. Holiday Inn, Bay, North Harbor Drive, San Diego, CA, USA. p. 405–414.
ALIPON MA, BAUZA EB, SAPIN GN. 2011. Development of Floor Tiles from Philippine Bamboos. Philipp. J Sci. 140(1): 33–40.
[ASTM] American Society for Testing Materials. 2005. Method of Testing Small Clear Specimen. ASTM Designation D1037–93, D143–52. USA. Standard Method of Evaluating the Properties of Wood Based Fibre and Particle Panel Material. ASTM 805–47 Standard Method of Glue Bond Evaluation. Philadelphia, PA. 30p.
ANWAR UMK, ZAIDON A. 2004. The potential of Utilizing Bamboo Culm (Gigantochloa scortechinii) in the Production of Structural Plywood. J Bamboo and Rattan 3: 393–400.
BOASIAKO A, APPIAH KM. 2012. Effects of preservative-chemicals on the bonding strength of urea-formaldehyde adhesive in Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J. C. Wendl. var. vulgaris hort. laminates.  J Indian Acad. Wood Sci. 9(1): 72–78.
CASIN RF, MOSTEIRO AD. 1970. Utilization and preservation of Bamboos. Wood Preservation Report. Vol. 3. Forest Products Research and Industries Development Commission. College, Laguna. p. 86–92.
CHOWDHURY MY. 1992. Physical and Chemical Treatments of Bamboo for Strength and Durability. In: Zhu S., Li W., Zhang X. and Wang Z. (eds.). Bamboo and Its Use. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Industrial Use of Bamboo. 7–11 Dec 1992. Beijing, China. p. 155–157.
DHAWAN S, MISHRA SC. 2007. A Study of Termite Damage in Relation to
Chemical Composition of Bamboos. Indian For. 133: 411–8.
 DIMRI MP, KUMAR P. 1998. Effect of glue line treatment with chlorpyrifos on the glue shear strength and termite resistance in Populus deltoids Plywood. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India. XLIV(2): 36–41.
ESPILOY ZB, ESPILOY EB. 1999. Basic properties of two lesser used bamboo species: Laak (Bambusa sp.) and Kayali (Gigantochloa atter). FPRDI Journal 25(1&2).
ESPILOY ZB. 1987. Physico-mechanical properties and anatomical relationships of some Philippine bamboos. In: Rao A.N., Dhanarajan G., Sastry C.B. (eds.). Recent Research on Bamboo. Proceedings of the International Bamboo Workshop, Hangzhou, China, 6–14 Oct 1985. Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China; International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. p. 257–264.
EXEC. ORDER NO. 879, 3 C.F.R. 1–7. 2010. Philippine Bamboo Industry Development Council Act.
[FPRDI] Forest Products Research and Development Institute. 2000. Bamboo Processing Training Manual. FPRDI, College, Laguna. 85p.
GARCIA CM, GIRON MY, ESPILOY ZB. 1998. Protection of Bamboo Mat Boards Against Powder-Post Beetle and Fungal Attack. FPRDI Journal 23(2): 53–61.
GARCIA CM, GIRON MY. 2004. Present Status of Termite Management in the Philippines. Pacific Rim Termite Research Group Mtg. Penang, Malaysia. 8–9 Mar 2004. p. 22–28.
GARCIA CM. 2005.  Manages of powder-post beetles, D. minutus F. In: Freshly Cut Bamboo (Ph.D. Dissertation). OSU, Corvallis, OR, USA. 127p.
GIRON MY, GARCIA CM. 2005. Protection and preservation manual of bamboo, rattan, twigs, and vines. FPRDI, College, Laguna 4031. 54p.
GARCIA CM, MORELL JJ. 2009. Development of the powder-post beetles (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) at constant temperature. Environmental Entomology 38(2): 478–483.
GARCIA ZM, GIRON MY, ESPILOY ZB. 1997. Protection of bamboo mat boards against powder-post-beetle and fungal attack. FPRDI J 23(2): 53–61.
HANIM AR, ZAIDON A, ANWAR UMK, RAFIDAH S. 2013. Effects of Chemical Treatments on Durability Properties of Gigantochloa scortechinii Strips and Ply-bamboo. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences 6(3): 153–160.
[JIS] Japanese Industrial Standard. 2003. Determination of the Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds and Adhesives for Building Products. Small Chamber Method. p. 20–34.
JIMENEZ J, ESCOBIN R, CONDA J. 2015. Profile of Wood Species Used in Local and Imported Plywood and their Bond Performance. Philippine Forest Products Journal 6(Jan–Dec): 43–58.
JIN J, WU C, QIN D, PENG W, SUN W, LIU C, CAO X, NIU X. 2016. Decay Resistance of Bamboo Strand Oriented Board Pre-treated with Copper-based Preservatives. BioResources 11(1): 1541–43.
LIESE W. 1980. Preservation of Bamboo. In: Gilles L. editors. Proceedings of a Workshop on Bamboo Research in Asia, 28-30 May 1980. Singapore. p. 165-172.
LIESE W. 1998. The anatomy of bamboo culms. Technical Report No. 18. International Network of Bamboo and Rattan. Beijing, PRC. 208p.
LIN SC. 1983. End-use of Malaysian timber in flooring. Malaysia Forester. 46p.
[PNS] Philippine National Standards (PNS 196:2000). Plywood Specification. Bureau of Products Standards. Department of Trade and Industry, Makati City. 21p.
[PNS] Philippine National Standards (PNS ISO 12460–4:2009). Wood-based panels – Determination of formaldehyde release – Part 4: Desiccator method. Department of Trade and Industry, Bureau of Product Standards. 8p.
REFIDAH S. As cited by HANIM AR, ZAIDON FA, ANWAR UMK. 2010. Adhesion and Bonding Characteristics of Preservative-Treated Bamboo (Gigantochloa scortechinii) Laminates. Journal of Applied Sciences 10(14): 1435–41. Asian Network for Scientific Information.
REYES R. 1993. Treatment and preservation of Bamboo. In: Baltazar E. editor. Proceedings of Third National Bamboo Research and Development Symposium. 27–28 Apr 1992: Los Banos, Laguna: ERDB/DENR. UNDP/FAO. p. 131–135.
SHUKLA KS. 1991. Studies on the preservation of plywood: Treatment of veneers with water-borne preservatives by non-pressure techniques. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India XXXVII(3): 34–47.
SINHA A, WAY D, MLASKO S. 2014. Structural performance of glued laminated bamboo beams. J Struct. Eng. 140(1).
SUBEKTI NT, YOSHIMURA, ROKHMAN F, MASTUR Z. 2015. Potential for Subterranean Termite Attack Against Five Bamboo Species in Correlation with
Chemical Components. Procedia Environmental Sciences 28: 783–788.
SULTHONI A. 1987. Traditional Preservation of Bamboo in Java, Indonesia. In: Rao A.N., Dhanrajan G., Sastry C.B. (eds.). Recent Research on Bamboo. Proceedings of the International Bamboo Workshop. 6–14 Oct 1984. p. 349–357.
SULTHONI A. 1983. Traditional Preservation of Bamboo by Soaking. International Development Research Centre (IDRC). Ottawa, Canada.