Determination of Fruit Ripeness Degree of ‘Carabao’ Mango (Mangifera indica L.) using Digital Photometry

Maja Sierhine J. Abarra1, Edralina P. Serrano2, Veronica C. Sabularse1,
 Hervin Errol T. Mendoza1, and Ernesto J. del Rosario1*

1Institute of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences,
University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna 4031 Philippines
2Postharvest Horticulture Training and Research Center,
College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna 4031 Philippines

*Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Color photographs of ‘Carabao’ mango fruits at different color index (CI) values or stages of ripeness were computer analyzed based on RGB, HSV, and L*a*b* color spaces. Plots of R, B, V, and L* versus CI had correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.874, 0.915, 0.931 and 0.948, respectively. Titratable acidity (TA) and fruit firmness decreased with CI. Values of R2 for TA were 0.917, 0.915, 0.948, and 0.977 for R, B, V, and L*, respectively; corresponding values for firmness were 0.941, 0.933, 0.941, and 0.968. R2 of the binary and ternary color functions for TA were 0.924 and 0.947, respectively; corresponding values for firmness were 0.905 and 0.948, respectively. The results show that digital photometry – using a simple digital camera and free-access software for color analysis based on RGB, HSV, or L*a*b* systems – is a promising laboratory method for determining the ripeness degree of ‘Carabao’ mango fruits.

Key words: ‘Carabao’ mango, digital photometry, HSV, L*a*b*, RGB, ripeness indicator



Color is determined by light source, reflected light from the sample, and visual sensitivity of the observer. These determinants were defined by the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) in 1931 in order to simulate the visual mechanism based on the primary colors (R, G, B) and color-matching functions. The majority of color digital still cameras intended for technical applications use an array of transistors on a CCD chip, with a filter array that allows some detectors for red (R), green (G), and blue (B). Thus, a digital color image is represented in RGB form with each color component R, G, or B per pixel in the range 0 to 255 and conventionally stored using eight bits per color component. L*a*b* or CIELAB, which is another commonly used and CIE-specified measure of color, may be calculated from XYZ values. . . . . . read more



ABBASI NA, IQBAL Z, MAQBOOL M, HAFIZ IA.  2009.  Postharvest quality of    mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits as affected by chitosan coating.  Pak. J. Bot. 41(1): 343-357.
 [AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 16th ed.  Washington, D.C.: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc.
BASULTO FS, DUCH ES, Y GIL FE, PLAZA RD, SAAVEDRA AL, SANTAMARIA JM. 2009. Postharvest Ripening and Maturity Indices for Maradol Papaya. Intercencia 34(8): 583-588.
BYERS JA.  2006. Analysis of Insect and Plant Colors in Digital Images Using Java Software on the Internet. Ann Entomol Soc Am. 99(5): 865-874.
DOMINGO DL, SERRANO BP, SERRANO EP, DEL ROSARIO EJ. 2012. Digital photometric method for determining the degree of harvest maturity and ripeness of ‘Sinta’ papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits. Philipp Agric Scientist 95(3): 175-184.
DUBOIS M, GILLES KA, HAMILTON JK, REBERS PA, SMITH F. 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal. Chem. 28(3): 350-356.
NUNES MC. 2008. Color atlas of postharvest quality of fruits and vegetables. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell. 480p.
OKOTH EM, SILA DN, ONYANGO CA, OWINO WO, MUSYIMI SM, MATHOOKO FM.  2013.  Evaluation of chemical and nutritional quality attributes of selected mango varieties at three stages of ripeness grown in lower Eastern province of Kenya – part 2.  J Anim Plant Sci. 17(3): 2619-30.
SALVADOR-FIGUEROA M, ARAGON-GOMEZ WI, HERNANDEZ-ORTIZ E, VAZQUEZ-OVANDO JA, ADRIANO-ANAYA ML. 2011. Effect of chitosan   coating on some characteristics of mango (Mangifera indica L.) “Ataulfo” subjected to hydrothermal process.  Afr. J. Agric. Res. 6(27): 5800-07.
SOMOGYI M. 1952. Notes on sugar determination. J. Biol. Chem. 195: 19-23.