Estimation of Grapefruit Juice Color
Degradation from Physicochemical Properties and
Thermal Inactivation Parameters of E. coli O157:H7

Alonzo A. Gabriel*, Errol John O. Ables, and Cecile Leah P. Tiangson-Bayaga

Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Hygiene
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Home Economics
University of the Philippines Diliman, 1101 Quezon City, Philippines

*corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This study established models that quantify and predict the influences of intrinsic properties soluble solids (SS, 2-70°Brix) and dilution rate (%D, 0-80% water added), and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation- related extrinsic  variables heating temperature (T, 47-97°C) and heating time (t, 0.5-60 min) on measured Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color space coordinates, and derived color parameters. The CIE L, a*, and b*, and respective differentials ΔL*, Δa*, and Δb* were significantly influenced by the individual effects of SS and %D. All these color parameters except a* and Δa* were influenced by the quadratic effects SS2 and %D2. Only b* and Δb* were significantly influenced by T. CIE °h*, Δ°h*, C*, ΔC*, and Δ°E were influenced by SS, D, SS2, and %D2. Only C* and Δ°C* were significantly influenced by T, while Δ°E* was influenced by the interaction of SS and %D. Validations showed that models had estimated values falling within acceptable ranges. The established models may be used together with other food quality and pathogen inactivation models in heated fruit juices, for a more comprehensive control of food safety and quality. This is the basic guiding principle of ‘Precision Food Processing,’ which to the authors’ knowledge is being introduced for the first time.

Fruit juice consumption is known to be a convenient means of complying with the recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables (Gabriel et al. 2005). However, unpasteurized fruit juices were previously associated with outbreaks of infections of pathogens including Cryptosporidium parvum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovars (Vojdani et al. 2008). Because of the risk posed by these pathogens to consumers, the United States Food and Drug Administration ratified the Fruit Juice Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) (USDA & USDHHS 2001). . . . . read more

AL-MOUEI R, CHOUMANE W. 2014. Physicochemical juice characteristics of various citrus species in Syria. Int J Plant Soil Sci 3(9):1083-1095.
BATES RP, MORRIS JR, CRANDALL PG. 2001. Principles and practices of small- and medium-scale fruit juice processing. FAO Agric. Services Bull. No. 146. FAO, Rome.
BUCHANAN RL, EDELSON SG. 1999. Effect of pH-dependent, stationary phase acid resistance on the thermal tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Food Microbiol 16(5):447-458.
CHOI M, KIM G, LEE H. 2002. Effects of ascorbic acid retention on juice color and pigment stability in blood orange (Citrus sinensis) juice during refrigerated storage. Food Res Int 35 (8):753-759.
DRLANGE. 1994. Colour Review. Drlange Application Report No. 8.0 e. Drlange, USA.
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. 1995. Chapter 3: Deterioration factors and their control. Retrieved from
FRANCIS FG, CLYDESDALE FM. 1975. Food Colorimetry: Theory and Applications. Westport, CT: The AVI Publishing Co., Inc. 477p.
FRATIANNI A, CINQUANTA L, PAFILI G. 2010. Degradation of carotenoids in orange juice during microwave heating. LWT - Food Sci Technol 43(6):867-871.
GABRIEL AA. 2012. Influences of heating temperature, pH, and soluble solids on the decimal reduction times of acid-adapted and non-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 (HCIPH 96055) in a defined liquid heating medium. Int J Food Microbiol 160:50-57.
GABRIEL AA. 2014. Precision food processing: Addressing consumer demands for safety and quality through predictive model building. A Peer-reviewed discussion paper published by the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA) for SEARCA Regional Professorial Chair.
GABRIEL AA. 2015. Fruit juice processing: Addressing demands for safety and quality. In: Microbial food safety and preservation techniques. Rai AR and Bai JA ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 33-52.
GABRIEL AA, AZANZA MPV. 2009. Quality of orange juice subjected to a predictive model-based pasteurization process. J Food Quality 32: 452-468.
GABRIEL AA, BARRIOS EB, AZANZA MPV. 2008. Modeling the thermal death Salmonella typhimurium in citrus systems. J Food Proc Eng 31:640-657.
GABRIEL AA, CAYABYAB JEC, TAN AKL, COROOK MLF, ABLES EJO, TIANGSON-BAYAGA CLP. 2015a. Development and validation of a predictive model for the influences of selected product and process variables on ascorbic acid degradation in simulated fruit juice. Food Chem 177:295-303.
GABRIEL AA, FERNANDEZ CP, TIANGSON-BAYAGA CLP. 2005. Consumer acceptance of Philippine orange drink as an iron-fortified beverage for Filipino women. Food Sci Technol Res, 11(3):369-377.
GABRIEL AA, NAKANO H. 2009. Inactivation of Salmonella, E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes in phosphate-buffered saline and apple juice by ultraviolet and heat treatments. Food Cont, 20(4):443-446.
GABRIEL AA, NAKANO H. 2010. Responses of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes 4b and Salmonella enteritidis to pH, aw and temperature stress combinations. Food Cont 21(5):644-650.
GABRIEL AA, USERO JMCL, RODRIGUEZ KJ, DIAZ AR, TIANGSON-BAYAGA CLP. 2015b. Estimation of ascorbic acid reduction in heated simulated fruit juice systems using predictive model equations. LWT-Food Sci Technol 64(2):1163-1170.
GENOVESE DB, ELUSTONDO, MP, LOZANO, JE. 1997. Color and cloud stabilization in cloudy apple juice by steam heating during crushing. J Food Sci 62(6): 1171-1175.
HADJAL T, DHUIQUE-MAYER C, MADANI K, DORNIER M, ACHIR N. 2013. Thermal degradation kinetics of xantophylls from blood orange in model and real food systems. Food Chem 138(4):2442-2450.
HUGGART RL, FELLERS PJ, DE JAGER G, BRADY J. 1979. The influence of color on consumer preferences for Florida frozen concentrated grapefruit juices. Proc Florida State Hort Soc 92:148-151.
HUGGART RL, PETRUS DR, BUSLIG BS. 1977 Color aspects of Florida commercial grapefruit juices, 1976-77. Proc Florida State Hort Soc 90:173-175.
JAGANNATH A, TSUCHIDO T. 2003. Validation of a polynomial regression model: The thermal inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores in milk. Lett Appl Microbiol 37(5): 399-404.
KIMBALL DA. 1991. Citrus Processing: Quality Control and Technology. New York: The AVI Publishing Co., Inc. 473p.
LEE HS, COATES GA. 2003. Effect of thermal pasteurization on Valencia orange juice color and pigments. Lebensm Wissens Technolog 36(1):153-156.
LEE HS, COATES GA. 1999. Thermal pasteurization effects on color of red grapefruit juices. J Food Sci 64(4): 663-666.
LEIZERSON S, SHIMONI E. 2005. Stability and sensory shelf life of orange juice pasteurized by continuous ohmic heating. J Agric Food Chem 53(10):4012-2018.
LESSIN WJ, CATIGANI, GL, SCWARTZ SJ. 1997. Quantification of cis-trans isomers of provitamin A carotenoids in fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 45(10):3728–3732.
MAK PP, INGHAM BH, INGHAM SC. 2001. Validation of apple cider pasteurization treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes. J Food Prot 64(11):1679–1689.
MELÉNDEZ-MARTINEZ AJ, VICARIO IM, HERIEDIA FJ. 2003. Application of Tristimulus Colorimetry to estimate the carotenoids content in ultrafrozen orange juices. J Agri Food Chem 51(25):7266-7270.
MELÉNDEZ-MARTINEZ AJ, VICARIO IM, HERIEDIA FJ. 2005. Correlation between visual and instrumental colour measurements of orange juice dilutions: effect of the background. Food Quality Pref 16(5):471-478.
PANGBORN RM. 1967. Some aspects of chemoreception in human nutrition. In: The Chemical Senses and Nutrition. Kare MR, Maller O ed. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins Press.
ROIG M, BELLO J, RIVERA Z, KENNEDY J. 1999. Studies on the occurrence of non-enzymatic browning during storage of citrus juice. Food Res Int 32(9): 09-619.
ROSS T, DALGAARD P, TIENUNGOOON S. 2000. Predictive modeling of the growth and survival of Listeria in fishery products. Int J Food Microbiol 62(3):231-245.
SHEWFELT RL. 1986. Flavor and color of fruits as affected by processing. In: Commercial fruit processing. Woodroof JG and Luh BS ed. Westport, CT: The AVI Publishing Co., Inc.
TEPPER BJ. 1993. Effects of a slight color variation on consumer acceptance of orange juice. J Sensory Stud 8(2):145-154.
TING SV, HUGGART RL, ISMAIL MA. 1980. Color and processing characteristics of Star Ruby grapefruits. Proc Florida State Hort Soc 93:293-295.
[USDA & USDHHS] United States Department of Agriculture & United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP); procedures for the safe and sanitary processing and importing of juice. final rule, 21 CFR Part 120, 66 FR 6137-6202, 19 January 2001. Washington D.C: U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
VOJDANI JD, BEUCHAT LR, TAUXE RV. 2008. Juice-associated outbreaks of human illness in the United States, 1995 through 2005. J Food Prot 71(2):356-364.