Staling Control in Philippine Yeast Bread (Pandesal)
Using Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers

 Maria Patricia V. Azanza1,2*, Emil Emmanuel C. Estilo1, and Florenda S. Gabriel3

1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Home Economics,
University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines 1101
2Industrial Technology Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Bicutan, Taguig City, Philippines 1631
3Department of Home Economics Education, College of Home Economics,
University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines 1101

corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



The short 3-day shelf-life of Philippine yeast bread (Pandesal) was extended by controlling staling and mold growth with antimicrobials, hydrocolloids, and emulsifiers, singly or in combination. Addition of combined antimicrobials 0.30% (flour basis, fb) calcium propionate and 0.10% (fb) potassium sorbate in a reference basal Pandesal recipe controlled mold growth up to 5 d, but did not delay earlier onset of staling (4 d). Reformulations of the basal recipe with combined antimicrobials using the hydrocolloids pectin and xanthan gum (0.25% and 0.50% fb levels each) were able to control bread firming up to 5-6 d in addition to mold growth control. Incorporation of hydrocolloids produced denser breads marked by increased weight, specific volume, and moisture content. Treatment of 0.50% (fb) pectin of bread formulation with antimicrobials yielded the best results in terms of overall acceptability and longest shelf-life, and was used in the subsequent reformulation with emulsifiers. Addition of monoacylglycerol (MAG) and sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) (0.25% and 0.50% fb levels each) further delayed firming up to 7 d with mold growth generally limiting the shelf-life of Pandesal. Incorporation of emulsifiers also improved bread volume and produced softer crumbs with 0.25% MAG yielding the best results. The compounded additives of 0.30% (fb) calcium propionate, 0.10% (fb) potassium sorbate, 0.50% (fb) pectin, and 0.25% (fb) MAG were found best to extend Pandesal use-by date to a total of 7 d.



Pandesal or Philippine salt bread, basically composed of wheat flour, sugar, salt, shortening, and yeast, is considered as the traditional breakfast bread staple in the country (Guzman et al. 1986; Dagoon 2005; Albala 2011). Breads that are leavened with carbon dioxide gas produced by yeast are also known as yeast breads (Luna 2005; Brown 2010). Indigenization of bread in the local Philippine food culture was considered as the result of the introductions of wheat flour as an ingredient and baking as a mode of cooking by Spanish and other foreign settlers . . . . . read more