Spatial Distribution of Organic Matter in the Surface Sediments of Calape Bay, Bohol, Central Philippines
Francis Albert T. Argente*,1,2, Herminie P. Palla1,3, Charina I. Narido1,4,
Milagros A. Celedonio1,5, and Danilo T. Dy1
1Marine Biology Section, Biology Department,
University of San Carlos, Cebu City, 6000 Philippines
2Department of Fisheries Science, Pangasinan State University – Binmaley Campus,
Binmaley, Pangasinan, 2417 Philippines
3College of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, Western Philippines University – Puerto Princesa Campus, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, 5300 Philippines
4Mathematics and Science Department, Holy Name University,
Tagbilaran City, Bohol, 6300 Philippines
5Natural Science Department, Dr. Emilio B. Espinosa Sr. Memorial State College of Agriculture and Technology, Mandaon, Masbate, 5411 Philippines
Calape Bay is a semi-enclosed marine system located in Bohol, Central Philippines. Despite the relatively restricted water circulation and dispersion of particulate organic matter, mariculture activities have not decreased in Calape Bay. Organic matter (OM) content of the surface sediment was quantified to serve as indicator of the current status of the benthic system after almost 30 years since mariculture was launched. Surface sediments were mainly composed of sand and gravel. Highest sediment OM (15.3%) was observed at the middle portion of the bay where the mariculture facilities are located. Mean OM at the mariculture facilities (11.4%) was higher than at the mouth of the bay (5.7%) and near the river mouth (9.4%). Finer sediments contained more OM. The high sediment OM in the bay will bring changes in the benthic environment in the years to come if mariculture activities are not regulated. Hence, monitoring of sediment OM is recommended.
Sediments perform major functions in the marine environment by serving as natural trap for various substances including toxicants (Nasr et al. 2006; Hu et al. 2009; Knies & Martinez 2009). Bottom sediments are a good source of nutrients which supports primary production in the water column, as shown in benthic pelagic coupling (Navarrete et al. 2005; Arndt & Regnier 2007; Ubertini et al. 2012). Sediments are also capable of storing considerable amount of organic matter (OM) which may influence the bottom water oxygen concentration (Werner et al. 2003; Koho et al. 2013). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ARNDT S, REGNIER P. 2007. A model for the benthicpelagic coupling of silica in estuarine ecosystems: Sensitivity analysis and system scale simulation. Biogeosciences 4: 331-352.
BECIRA JG. 2006. Rate of loaded sediments in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. Sci Diliman 18(1): 53-58.
BELLEY R, ARCHAMBAULT P, SUNDBY B, GILBERT F, GAGNON J. 2010. Effects of hypoxia on benthic macrofauna and bioturbation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Cont Shelf Res 30: 1302-13.
BERGAMASCHI BA, TSAMAKIS E, KEIL RG, EGLINTON TI, MONTLUCON DB, HEDGES JI. 1997. The effect of grain size and surface area on organic matter, lignin and carbohydrate concentration, and molecular compositions in Peru Margin sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61(6): 1247-60.
BONSDORFF E, BLOMQVIST EM, MATTILA, NORKKO A. 1997. Coastal eutrophication: causes, consequences and perspectives in the archipelago areas of the Northern Baltic Sea. East Coast Shelf Sci 44: 63-72.
BLOTT S, PYE K. 2001. GRADISTAT: A grain size distribution and statistics package for the analysis of unconsolidated sediments. Earth Surf Process Landforms 26: 1237-48.
BURNS NM, ROSA F. 1980. In situ measurement of the settling velocity of organic carbon particles and 10 species of phytoplankton. Limnol Oceanogr 25(5): 855-864.
CORRALES JD. 2005. Regulatory framework for fish cage operation in Calape Bay: A recommendation based on environmental and culture conditions. [MS thesis]. Cebu City: University of the Philippines in the Visayas-Cebu College. 93p.
DRAKE DE, EGANHOUSE R, MCARTHUR W. 2002. Physical and chemical effects of grain aggregates on the Palos Verdes margin, southern California. Cont Shelf Res 22: 967-986.
ELIAS MS, WOOD AK, HASHIM Z, SIONG WB, HAMZAH MS, RAHMAN SA, SALIM NA AND TALIB A. 2007. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia. Malays J Anal Sci 11(1): 70-75.
GRAY JS, WU RS, OR YY. 2002. Effects of hypoxia and organic enrichment on the coastal marine environment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 238: 249-279.
GREEN SJ, MONREAL RP, WHITE AT, BAYER TG. 2000. Coastal environmental profile of Northwestern Bohol, Philippines. Coastal Resource Management Project, Cebu City, Philippines. 113p.
HU L, GUO Z, FENG J, YANG Z, FANG M. 2009. Distribution and sources of bulk organic matter and aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea, China. Mar Chem 113: 197-211.
KNIES J, MARTINEZ P. 2009. Organic matter sedimentation in the western Barents Sea region: Terrestrial and marine contribution based on isotopic composition and organic nitrogen content. Norw J Geol 89: 79-89.
KOHO KA, NIEROP KGJ, MOODLEY L, MIDDELBURG JJ, POZZATO L, SOETAERT K, VAN DER PLICHT J, REICHART GJ. 2013. Microbial bioavailability regulates organic matter preservation in marine sediments. Biogeosciences 10: 1131-41.
KRUMINS JA, VAN OEVELEN D, BEZEMER TM, DE DEYN GB, HOL WHG, VAN DONK E, DE BOER W, DE RUITER PC, MIDDELBURG JJ, MONROY F, SOETAERT K, THEBAULT E, VAN DE JOPPEL J, VAN VEEN JA, VIKETOFT M, VAN DER PUTTEN WH. 2013. Soil and freshwater and marine sediment food webs: Their structure and function. Bio Science 63(1): 35-42.
LUCZAK C, JANQUIN M, KUPKA A. 1997. Simple standard procedure for the routine determination of organic matter in marine sediment. Hydrobiologia 345: 87-94.
MALVAREZ GC, COOPER JAG, JACKSON DWT. 2001. Relationships between wave-induced currents and sediment grain size on a sandy tidal-flat. J Sediment Res 71(5): 705-712.
MAYER LM, SCHICK LL, ALLISON MA, RUTTENBERG KC, BENTLEY SJ. 2007. Marine vs. terrigenous organic matter in Louisiana coastal sediments: The uses of bromine: organic carbon ratios. Mar Chem 107: 244-254.
MIRZA R, FAGHIRI I, ABEDI E. 2012. Contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface Sediments of Khure-Musa Estuarine, Persian Gulf. World J Fish Mar Sci 4(2): 136-141.
NACORDA HME, OBLIOSCA JM, TENTIA MCL, JACINTO GS, SAN DIEGO-MCGLONE MLC. 2012. Deterioration of soft bottom macroinfaunal communities in a milkfish mariculture zone off Bolinao-Anda, Pangasinan (NW Philippines). In: Kawaguchi M, Misaki K, Sato H, Yokokawa T, Itai T, Nguyen TM, Ono J, Tanabe S. (editors). Interdisciplinary Studies on Environmental Chemistry. Environ Pollut Ecotoxicol 6: 387-395.
NASR SM, OKBAH MA, KASEM SM. 2006. Environmental assessment of heavy metal pollution in bottom sediments of Aden Port, Yemen. Int J Oceans Oceanogr 1(1): 99-109.
NAVARRETE SA, WIETERS EA, BROITMAN BR, CASTILLA JC. 2005. Scales of benthic-pelagic coupling and the intensity of species interactions: From recruitment limitation to top-down control. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(50). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0509119102
NILSSON H, ROSENBERG R. 2000. Succession in marine benthic habitats and fauna in response to oxygen deficiency: Analyzed by sediment profile-imaging and by grab samples. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 197: 139-149.
NIXON SW. 1995. Coastal marine eutrophication: A definition, social causes, and future concerns. Ophelia 41: 199-220.
[NSO] National Statistic Office. 2010. Census of population and housing (Bohol). National Statistic Office, Sta. Mesa, Manila. 94p.
OREN A, AIZENSHTAT Z, CHEFETZ B. 2006 Persistent organic pollutants and sedimentary organic matter properties: A case study in the Kishon River, Israel. Environ Pollut 141: 265-274.
PREMUZIC ET, BENKOVITZ CM, GAFENEY JS, WALSH JJ. 1982. The nature and distribution of organic matter in the surface sediments of world oceans and seas. Org Geochem 4: 63-77.
RIEGL BM, HALFAR J, PURKIS SJ, ORTA LG. 2007. Sedimentary facies of the eastern Pacific’s northernmost reef-like setting (Cabo Pulmo, Mexico). Mar Geol 236: 61-77.
ROMAN JMP, ACHAB M. 1999. Grain-size trends associated with sediment transport patterns in Cadiz Bay (southwest Iberian Peninsula). Bol Inst Esp Oceanogr 15(1-4): 269-282.
ROSENBERG R, NILSSON HC, DIAZ RJ. 2001. Response of benthic fauna and changing sediment redox profiles over a hypoxic gradient. Est Coast Shelf Sci 53: 343-350.
SILAPAN J, MAEDA H. 2007. Beggiatoa sp. as indicator of organically-enriched fish mariculture site in Calape Bay, Bohol (Central Philippines). UPV J Nat Sci 12: 35-44.
TOMASSETTI P, PERSIA E, MERCATALI I, VANI D, MARUSSO V, PORRELLO S. 2009. Effects of mariculture on macrobenthic assemblages in a western Mediterranean site. Mar Pollut Bull 58: 533-541.
TOUPOINT N, GODET L, FOURNIER J, RETIERE C, OLIVIER F. 2008. Does Manila clam cultivation affect habitats of the engineer species Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766)? Mar Pollut Bull 56: 1429-38.
UBERTINI M, LEFEBVRE S, GANGNERY A, GRANGERE K, LE GENDRE R, ORVAIN F. 2012. Spatial variability of benthic-pelagic coupling in an estuary ecosystem: Consequences for microphytobenthos resuspension phenomenon. PLoS ONE 7(8): e44155. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044155
[UPMSI-UPVCC] University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines in the Visayas - Cebu College. 2002. Development of marine environmental quality criteria for mariculture areas. Second Annual Report, February 2002. Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act Project. DA-BAR, Diliman, Quezon City. 90p.
VAN NUGTEREN P, MOODLEY L, BRUMMER GJ, HEIP CHR, HERMAN PMJ, MIDDELBURG JJ. 2009. Seafloor ecosystem functioning: The importance of organic matter priming. Mar Biol 156: 2277-87.
WENTWORTH CK. 1922. A scale grade and class terms for clastic sediments. J Geol 30: 377-392.
WERNER U, POLERECKY L, WALPERSDORF E, FRANKE U, BILLERBECK M, BOTTCHER M, FERDELMAN T, DE BEER D. 2003. Organic matter degradation processes in permeable sediments – methodological approaches. Ber Forschungszent Terramare 12: 122-125.
YOKOYAMA H. 2002. Impact of fish and pearl farming on the benthic environments in Gokasho Bay: Evaluation from seasonal fluctuations of the macrobenthos. Fish Res 68: 258-268.
YU B, DONG H, JIANG H, GUO LV, EBERL D, LI S, KIM J. 2009. The role of clay minerals in the preservation of organic matter in sediments of Qinghai Lake, NW China. Clays Clay Miner 57(2): 213-226.
ZHU Q, ALLER RC, YANZHEN F. 2006. Two dimensional pH distributions and dynamics in bioturbated marine sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70(19): 4933-49.