Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation on Growth and Cu Uptake and Toxicity of Desmodium cinereum (Kunth) D.C.
Joden M. Adiova1, Nelson M. Pampolina2 and Nelly S. Aggangan3*
1Department of Crop Protection, College of Agriculture,
Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
2Forest Biological Sciences, College of Forestry and Natural Resources,
University of the Philippines, Los Baños, College, Laguna
3National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology,
University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Lagunas
The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on copper (Cu) uptake and toxicity of Desmodium cinereum (Kunth) D.C. was studied. This legume produces large amount of biomass that can serve as buffer in areas with high concentration of Cu. Pre-germinated seeds of D. cinereum inoculated and non-inoculated with AMF were grown in sand-soil mixture treated with increasing Cu concentration (0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600 ppm Cu). Increasing Cu concentration gave a corresponding reduction on height, diameter, leaf area, and biomass of the plants. Root growth and nodule formation at 1200 and 1600 ppm Cu level were inhibited (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Mycorrhizal inoculation increased plant height, biomass, and stem diameter at lower Cu level. Inoculation enhanced nodulation and also improved phosphorus concentration in the leaves, stem and roots at 0 and 400ppm Cu level. Increasing Cu concentration resulted to a greater Cu accumulation in the roots while Cu concentration on stem and leaves remained at a normal level. Inoculation with AMF increased Cu uptake of roots and stem at 800, 1200, and 1600ppm Cu levels. The ability of mycorrhizal fungi to improve Cu uptake, increase plant growth, increase phosphorus uptake, and promote growth of other beneficial microorganisms such as nitrogen fixing bacteria (as exemplified by the nodulation in the roots) for D. cinereum, make it an ideal tool for phytoremediation of Cu contaminated sites.
Copper (Cu) is the third most used commercial metal because of its availability and attractive properties (Fjällborg & Dave 2003). Likewise, it is also one of the most common and problematic heavy metal (HM) soil pollutants. Since Cu can be released both naturally and through human activity, it is very . . . . . . . . . . . .
ABDALLA ME, ABDEL-FATTAH GM. 2000. Influence of the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on the development of peanut pod rot disease in Egypt. Mycorrhiza 10: 29-35.
AHONEN-JONNARTH U, FINLAY RD. 2001. Effect of elevated nickel and cadmium on growth and nutrient uptake of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Plant Soil 236: 128-138.
CAMPAGNAC E, SAHRAOUI A, DEBIANE D, FONTAINE J, LARUELLE F, GARÇON G, VERDIN A, DURAND R, SHIRALI P, GRANDMOUGINFERJANI A. 2010. Arbuscular mycorrhiza partially protects chicory roots against oxidative stress induced by two fungicides, fenpropimorph and fenhexamid. Mycorrhiza 20: 167-178.
CASTILLO ET. 1993. Responses of narra (Pterocarpus indicus Willd.) inoculated with VA Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium in Macolod soils. [PhD Thesis] Doctor of Philosophy. University of the Philippines at Los Baños Laguna: College of Forestry and Natural Resources.
CHEN B, CHRISTIE P, LI X. 2001. A modified glass bead compartment cultivation system for studies on nutrient and trace metal uptake by arbuscular mycorrhiza. Chemosphere 42: 185-192.
CHEN BD, LI XL, TAO HQ, CHRISTIE P, WONG MH. 2003. The role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in zinc uptake by red clover growing in a calcareous soil spiked with various quantities of zinc. Chemosphere 50: 839-846.
ELSEN D, GERVACIO R, SWENNEN R, DE WAELE D. 2008. AMF-induced biocontrol against plant parasitic nematodes in Musa sp.: a systemic effect. Mycorrhiza 18: 251-256.
FJÄLLBORG B, DAVE G. 2003. Toxicity of copper in sewage sludge. Environ Int 28: 761-769.
GIOVANNETTI M, MOSSE B. 1980. An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular-arbuscular infection in roots. New Phytol 84: 489-500.
HILDEBRANDT U, KARLDORF M, BOTHE H. 1999. The zinc violet and its colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. J Plant Physiol 154: 709-717.
HUANG Y, CHEN YJ, TAO C. 2002. Uptake and distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in maize related to metals speciation change in rhizosphere. Chinese J Appl Ecol 13: 860-862.
JAKOBSEN I, GAZEY C, ABBOTT LK. 2001. Phosphate transport by communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in intact soil cores. New Phytol 149: 95-103.
JENTSCHKE G, MARSCHNER P, D. VODNIK D, MARTH C, BREDEMEIER M, RAPP C, FRITZ E, GOGALA N, GODBOLD DL. 1998. Lead uptake by Picea abies seedlings: effects of nitrogen source and mycorrhizas. J Plant Physiol 153: 97-104.
JONER EJ, BRIONES R, LEYVAL C. 2000. Metal binding capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium. Plant Soil 226: 227-234.
JONER EJ, LEYVAL C. 2001. Time-course of heavy metal uptake in maize and clover as affected by root density and different mycorrhizal inoculation regimes. Biol Fert Soils 33: 351-357.
KAYA C, HIGGS D, KIRNAK H, TAS I. 2003. Mycorrhizal colonization improves fruit yield and water use efficiency in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) grown under well watered and water-stressed conditions. Plant Soil 253: 287-292.
KHAN AG. 2006. Mycorrhizoremediation—an enhanced form of phytoremediation. J Zhejiang Univ Sci 7(7): 503-514.
LEUNG HM, YE ZH, WONG MH. 2006. Interactions of mycorrhizal fungi with Pteris vittata (as hyperaccumulator) in as-contaminated soils. Environ Pollution 139: 1-8.
MARSCHNER H. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd edn. Academic Press, London. 889p.
ORTAS I. 2012. The effect of mycorrhizal fungal inoculation on plant yield, nutrient uptake and inoculation effectiveness under long-term field conditions. Field Crops Research 125: 35-48.
PERNER H, SCHWARZ D, GEORGE E. 2006. Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation and compost supply on growth and nutrient uptake of young leek plants grown on peat-based substrates. Hort Science 41: 628-632.
POULTON JL, BRYLA D, KOIDE RT, STEPHENSON AG. 2002. Mycorrhizal infection and high soil phosphorus improve vegetative growth and the female and male functions in tomato. New Phytol 154: 255-264.
RASKIN I, SMITH RD, DAVID SE. 1997. Phytoremediation of metals: using plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Curr Opinion Biotechnol 8: 221-6.
SZANISZLO P, POWELL E, REID R, CLINE G. 1981. Production of hydroxamatesiderophore iron chelators by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycologia 73: 1158-74.
TAIZ L, ZEIGER E. 2002. Plant Physiology. 3rd edition. Sinauer Associates. Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA. 690p.
THINGSTRUP I, KAHILUOTO H, JAKOBEN I. 2000. Phosphate transport by hyphae of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at two levels of P fertilization. Plant Soil 221: 181-187.
WEISSENHORN I, MENCH M, LEYVAL C. 1995. Bioavailability of heavy metals and arbuscular mycorrhizas in a sewage sludge-amended sandy soil. Soil Biol Biochem 127: 287-296.
YANG X, FENG Y, HE Z, STOFFELLA PJ. 2005. Molecular mechanisms of heavy metal hyperaccumulation and phytoremediation. J Trace Elem Med Biol 18: 339-353.