Toxicity of Arsenic, Aluminum, Chromium and Nickel to the Embryos of the Freshwater Snail, Radix quadrasi von Möellendorf 1898


Catrine Jell B. Factor and Emmanuel Ryan C. de Chavez*

Animal Biology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences,
College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños,
College, Laguna, Philippines

corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Heavy metals are one of the major toxicants affecting different organisms including freshwater snails. To examine this problem, the effects of arsenic (As3+), aluminum (Al3+), chromium (Cr6+), and nickel (Ni2+) on the embryonic development of the freshwater pulmonate, Radix quadrasi, were determined. For the acute toxicity of individual metals, a total of 100 egg masses were subjected to static renewal test for 96h. Sublethal toxicity test based on adjusted LC10-96h concentrations was conducted for 14 days. Based on the LC50-96h, the toxicity trend for embryos was Cr6+ (0.0263 mg/L) > As3+(1.0147 mg/L) > Ni2+ (1.5877 mg/L) > Al3+(1.8787 mg/L). Sublethal toxicity test showed growth retardation as the most common abnormality among embryos exposed to As3+, Al3+ and Ni2+, followed by edema and thinning of the shell. The hatchability and incubation period were also significantly decreased and prolonged in all treatment groups as compared to the control. The lowest observed effective concentration which induced abnormality was lower than the criteria continuous concentration and comparable to the detected field levels in polluted Philippine freshwater system. The present study demonstrated R. quadrasi embryos as a general sensitive bioindicator for trace levels of As3+, Al3+, Ni2+, and Cr6+.



Persistence of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem is one of the major environmental concerns in developing countries as they cause adverse effects on the health and reproductive capacity of different organisms including many invertebrates. Waterborne heavy metals such as arsenic prolonged hatching and decreased the fecundity in Biomphalaria glabrata (Ansaldo et al. 2009), while aluminum altered the feeding activity in Lymnaea stagnalis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .





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