Selection of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inoculants for Improved Growth of Somatic Embryo-derived Liriodendron tulipifera (Magnoliaceae) Plantlets
Nelly S. Aggangan1,2*, Yong-Wook Kim1, Sim-Hee Han3,
So-Young Park1, and Heung-Kyu Moon1
1Biotechnology Division, Korea Forest Research Institute, Suwon, 441-350, Korea
2National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (BIOTECH)
University of the Philippines Los Baños 4031, Laguna, Philippines
3Department of Forest Genetic Resources, Korea Forest Research Institute, Suwon, 441-350, Korea
To select arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for large scale inoculation programs, somatic embryo (SE) derived yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) plantlets were inoculated during ex-vitro, with spores of AM fungi Gigaspora margarita, Glomus macrocarpum, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus fasciculatum from the Philippines, Glomus intraradices from INVAM, USA and mixed species extracted from rhizosphere soil of a Populus stand in Suwon (AMKFRI) and Carex growing in mine tailings in Bonghwa (AMM6), Korea. AMKFRI consists of Glomus and Gigaspora while AMM6 had Glomus and Acaulospora. Plantlets were grown in autoclaved peat perlite vermiculite medium and incubated under growth room conditions for six weeks and later in a glasshouse. Generally, mycorrhizal plants grew better with greener and broader leaves than the non-mycorrhizal counterpart. After 14 weeks in a glasshouse, roots of all mycorrhizal seedlings were colonized with AM fungi where G. intraradices and G. margarita colonized 63 and 54%, respectively, of the root system. G. intraradices, G. margarita, G. macrocarpum and AMM6 comparably promoted height. AM fungi increased root biomass by 2.8-6.4 folds. G. fasciculatum and AMM6 increased the highest root and total dry weight but comparable with that by AMM6. G. fasciculatum inoculated plants had the highest P concentration and P, Zn and Cu uptakes. AMM6 promoted the highest N, K, Na and Mg uptakes. The results show that AM fungi, irrespective of origin (either from the Philippines, USA, and Korea), can establish a symbiotic association with SE-derived yellow poplar plantlets. However, capabilities in promoting plant growth, biomass and nutrient uptake differed. The Philippine G. fasciculatum and the Korean AMM6 are the most promising AM inoculants that can be used on SE-derived yellow poplar plantlets during ex-vitro. G. margarita, G. etunicatum, G. macrocarpum, G. intraradices and AMKFRI promoted an intermediate plant growth. Their effectiveness and persistence should be determined in degraded field conditions.
Liriodendron tulipifera L., a member of the Magnoliaceae family with many common names such as yellow poplar, tulip tree, tulip poplar, white . . . . . . . . .
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