Development of Floor Tiles from Philippine Bamboos
Marina A. Alipon, Edna B. Bauza, and Gilberto N. Sapin
Forest Product Research and Development Institute
Los Baños, College, Laguna, Philippines
The study determined and evaluated some important physical and mechanical properties of floor tiles from kauayan tinik (Bambusa blumeana J. A. & J. H. Schultes) and giant bamboo [Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes f.) Backer ex Heyne] glued with urea formaldehyde (UF) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) without and with preservative treatments (deltamethrin, borax and boric acid, and chlorpyrifos) as well as their comparative costs. Standard procedures were used to test and evaluate the properties of the bamboo floor tiles such as relative density (RD), moisture content (MC), hardness (H), thickness swelling (TS), abrasive resistance (AR), and glue bond (GB). Kauayan tinik and giant bamboo are both acceptable for flooring although the former has generally better properties than the latter. UF-glued kauayan tinik treated with either deltamethrin or borax and boric acid is preferred over the others in term of physical and mechanical properties, as well as cost of glue and preservative combinations.
Bamboo is an ideal substitute for wood because it is fast growing, easily propagated, and has a short rotation period. Numerous bamboo-based products have been developed. Most of the new products are in the form of composites and reconstituted panels such as floor tiles or parquet owing to bamboo's thin-walled, round, hollow, and small diameter. . . . . . . .
ALIPON MA, FIDEL MM, BONDAD EO, CAYABYAB PC. 2004. Development of glue-laminated bamboo and bamboo-wood combination for structural uses. FPRDI J 27(1&2): 67-86.
[ASTM] American Society For Testing Materials. 1998. ASTM D 1034-72. Standard Method of Evaluating the Properties of Wood Based Fibre and Particle Panel Material. ASTM 805-47. Standard Method of Glue Bond Evaluation. Philadelphia, Pa: American Society for Testing Materials. 30p.
DIMRI MP, KUMAR KS. 1998. Effect of PF glue line treatment with chlorpyrifos on the glue shear strength and termite resistance in Populus deltoids plywood. Journal of the Timber Development Association of India XLIV (2): 36-41.
ESPILOY ZB, ESPILOY EB. 1992. Properties of six erect bamboo species grown in the Philippines. FPRDI J 21(3&4): 79-88.
ESPILOY ZB, ALIPON MA, BONDAD EO. 2007. Utilization of commercial Philippine bamboos. Monograph on Production and Utilization of Philippine Bamboos. College, Laguna: Forest Product Research and Development Institute. p. 25-72.
[FPRDI] Forest Products Research And Development Institute. 2000. Bamboo Processing Training Manual. FPRDI, College, Laguna: Forest Product Research and Development Institute. p. 18.
GANAPATHY DM. 1995. Bamboo based panels: A review. Part I. Existing products and technologies. New Delhi, India: International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) and International Development Research Centre. 107p.
GARCIA ZM, GIRON MY, ESPILOY ZB. 1997. Protection of bamboo mat boards against powder-post beetle and fungal attack. FPRDI J 23(2): 53-61.
GIRON MY, SAN PABLO MR. 1991. Efficacy of 2-thiocyanomethyl-benzothiozole (TCMTB) against molds and staining fungi on three bamboo species.
FPRDI J 20(3&4):11-16. GIRON MY, SAN PABLO MR, CAPATI AD. 1992. Prevention and control of fungal attack on baskets and handicrafts made from bamboo, twigs and vines. FPRDI J 21(1&2): 41-51.
HUNT MG, GARRATT GA. 1953. Wood Preservation. USA: Mc Graw-Hill Bool Company. 417p.
JANSSEN JJA. 1987. The mechanical properties of bamboo. In: Rao AN, Dhanarajan G, Sastry CB (ed). Proceedings of the Internatiaonal Workshop on Bamboo. 6-14 October 1985; Beijing, China: Chinese Academy of Forestry, International Development Center, Ottawa, Canada. p. 250-256.
JARANILLA E. 1964. Bamboo parquet block. Philippine patent office. Patent number UM-386.
LIESE W. 1980. Preservation of Bamboos. Bamboo Research in Asia. Proceedings of IDRC and IUFRO Workshop. 28-30 May 1980. Singapore: International Development Research Centre and International Union of Forest Research Organizations. p. 165-172.
LIN SC. 1983. End-use of Malaysian timber in flooring. Malaysian Forester. 46p.
MALAB SC, ZAFARALLA JA. 2006. Engineered kawayan technology promotion and investment options for commercialization (Monograph). Batac, Ilocos Norte: Mariano Marcos State University. 11p.
MOHMOD ABD, LATIF T, MUSTAFA V, SAMAD, MIDON MS. 1990. Wear resistance of two commercial bamboo species in peninsular Malaysia and their suitability as a flooring material. In: Rao R, Gnanaharan R, Sastry CB (eds). Proceedings of the International Bamboo Workshop. 14-18 November 1988; Cochin, India: Kerala Forest Research Institute, India and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. p. 223-230.
OLSON WZ, BRUCE HO. 1947. Polyvinyl-resin emulsion woodworking glues. A study of some of their properties. FPL Report No. R1691. Madison, Wisconsin: United States of Agriculture Forest Service. 20p.
REYES R. 1993. Treatment and preservation of bamboo. In: Baltazar E. editor. Proceedings of the Third National Bamboo Research and Development Symposium. 27-28 April 1992; Los Baños, Laguna: ERDB/DENR UNDP/FAO. p. 131-135.
REYES AV, GARCIA CM. 1998. Prevention and control of powder-post Beetle Infestation in Bamboos thru Non-chemical Method. Terminal Report. FPRDI College, Laguna: Forest Product Research and Development Institute. 19p.
ROTARY ABRASION TESTER INSTRUCTION MANUAL. Tokyo, Japan: Toyo Seiki Seisaku-Sho Ltd. p. 1-17.
SHUKLA KS. 1991. Studies on the preservation of plywood: Treatment of veneers with water-borne preservatives by non-pressure techniques. J Tim Dev Assoc India XXXVII (3): 34-47.
TAMOLANG FN. 1957. Fiber dimensions of certain Philippine broad leaved woods and bamboos. Part I. TAPPI 40(8): 671-676.
WANGAARD FF, WOODSON GE. 1973. Fiber length-fiber strength interrelationship for slash pine and its effect on pulp sheet properties. Wood Sci 5(3): 235-240.
WIDJAJA E, RISYAD Z. 1985. Anatomical properties of some bamboo utilized in Indonesia. In: Rao AN, Dhanarajan G, Sastry CB. (eds). Recent Research on Bamboos. Proceedings of the International Bamboo Workshop. 6-14 October 1985; Hangzhou, China: Chinese Academy of Forestry, Bejing China; International Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. p. 224-246.
ZHU, SHILIN, LI W, ZHANG X. 1994. Substitute for bamboo in China. A final report of project. PD 124/91 Rev. I (M) ITTO. Institute of Scientific and Technological Information. Chinese Academy of Forestry. May.
ZAFARALLA JA, MALAB SC. 2009. Development of bamboo tile-making machine. Silvicultural management of bamboo in the Philippines and Australia for shoots and timber. ACIAR Proceedings. Proceedings of a workshop held in the Philippines, 22-23 November 2006; Los Baños, Laguna: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. p. 1-12.