Correlates of Body Image Satisfaction Among Economically Depressed Urban Filipino Women
Mildred T. Aquino*, Consuelo L. Orense, Celeste C. Tanchoco,
Sofia V. Amarra, Merlyn G. Tajan, and Evelyn O. Dela Cruz
Food and Nutrition Research Institute
Department of Science and Technology, General Santos Avenue,
Bicutan, Taguig City, Philippines
The study assessed body image satisfaction with diet, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), age, income, and education among 251 women in a depressed urban barangay. Results showed that most women were younger, had low education, and had no occupation. Using BMI, 28.7% were overweight and obese, and 11.6% were underweight. Using WHR and WC, 59% and 13.5%, respectively, were at risk. Six out of ten women were not satisfied with their body image. Nutrient intake and adequacy between women who were satisfied and those who were not satisfied with their body image were not significantly different. Adequacy of intake was below the Recommend Energy and Nutrient Intake (RENI) for most nutrients except niacin. Women satisfied with their body image had lower BMI, WC, and WHR. Body image satisfaction was associated with BMI, WC, and WHR but WHR was the only significant variable affecting image satisfaction. Android or central body adiposity affects body image satisfaction among women because of the change in body shape brought by fat deposition.
Body image is defined as “how a person feels about his appearance.” Developing and nurturing a positive body image is considered part of a healthy mental attitude and is crucial to a person’s happiness and wellness. Body image is a combination of how we perceive ourselves about basic looks and how we react emotionally in certain situations (Sloan 2006). Having a negative body image may be a contributing factor to poor self-esteem, feelings of perfectionalism, and negative eating attitudes and behaviors which have been identified as predisposing factors to eating disorders (Perez et al. 2003)
ALBERTI KG, ZIMMET PZ. 1998. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part I: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 15: 539-553.
DOBBELSTEYN C, JOFFRES MR, MACLEAN DR, FLOWERDEW G. 2001. A comparative evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index as indicators of cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Obesity 25(5): 652-661.
DREWNOWSKI A, SPECTER SE. 2004. Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. Am J Clin Nutrition 79: 6-16.
[FNRI] FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARCH INSTITUTE-DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 1997. The Philippine Food Composition Tables. Taguig City, Philippines: Food and Nutrition Research Institute - Department of Science and Technology. 163p.
[FNRI] FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARCH INSTITUTE-DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2002. Recommended energy and Nutrient Intake. Bicutan, Taguig City: Food and Nutrition Research Institute-Department of Science and Technology. 423p.
[FNRI] FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARCH INSTITUTE-DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2006. Philippine Nutrition Facts & Figures 2003. Bicutan, Taguig City: Food and Nutrition Research Institute-Department of Science and Technology. 118p.
GIBSON R. 1990. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. New York: Madison Avenue, Oxford University Press. 600p.
HÄARTL K,. JANNI W, KÄSTNER R, SOMMER H, STROBL B, RACK B, STAUBER M. 2003. Impact of medical and demographic factors on long-term quality of life and body image of breast cancer patients. Ann Oncol 14: 1064-71, 2003.
HAWKS SR, SMITH T, MADANAT HN. 2005. Body size perceptions among rural Filipino women: accuracy, desirability, and implications. Third Asia-Oceania Conference on Obesity. 25-27 February 2005; Taipei, Taiwan: Chinese Taipei Association for the Study of Obesity (CTASO), Taiwan Medical Association for the Study of Obesity (TMASO). 1p.
LEVINE MP, HAYDEN LSM. 1994. The Relation of Sociocultural Factors to Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Middle School Girls. The Journal of Early Adolescence 14(4): 471-490.
KATZMARZYK PT, DAVIS C. 2001. Thinness and body shape of playboy centerfolds from 1978 to 1998. Int J Obesity 25(4): 590-592.
MARGRAF J. 2000. No, you can’t have the figure you want: Unrealistic expectations. In: Weighty Matters: Getting to grips with corpulence. Hoffman RF (ed). Basel, Switzerland: La Roche Ltd. 84p.
MCIZA Z, GOEDECKE JH, STEYN NP, CHARLTON K, PUOANE T, MELTZER S, LEVITT NS, LAMBERT EV. 2005. Development and validation of instruments measuring body image and body weight dissatisfaction in South African mothers and their daughters. Public Health Nutrition 8(5): 509-519.
MONTEATH SA, MCCABE MP. 1997. The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image. J Soc Psychol 137(6): 708-27.
[NIH] NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. 2002. NIH News Release : NHLBI Study Shows Weight Concerns Increase Girls’ Risk Of Becoming Smokers. June 3, 2002. Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/new/press/02-06-03.htm on May, 2008.
[NSCB] NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATING BOARD. 1974. Presidential Decree No. 465 In: Philippine Standard Geographical Code, 1997–2009. Retrieved February 2007 from http://www.nscb.gov.ph/activestats/psyc/articles/intro_PD465.asp
OFFICE FOR WOMEN. Australian Government. 2003. Key Issues Affecting Women. Focus on Women. Issue 6. 2003. Retrieved from http://www.ofw.facsia.gov.au/publications/focusonwomen/2003.htm. October 21, 2007.
PAN AS. 2000. Body image, eating attitudes, and eating behaviors among Chinese, Chinese-American and non-Hispanic White women. Dissertation-AbstractsInternational, San Francisco State University. Retrieved from http://www.sfsn.edu/2multsowk/title/54.htm
PEREZ M, JOINER TE JR. 2003. Body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating in black and white women. Int J Eating Disorders 33(3): 342-350.
SLOAN B. 2000. Body image. Ohio State University Factsheet. Retrieved from http://ohioline.osu.edu/hygfact/5000/5238.html on August 18, 2006.
SONG HJ, OH MS, AHN SH, PARK MS, YOO TW, KANG JH, CHOI YI. 1999. The factors associated with satisfaction about body image and weight control behaviors in adolescents. J Korean Acad Fam Med 20(4): 345-357.
TIGGEMANN M. 1999. Body image research summary: body image & health inc. Research Summaries.
TOWNSEND MS, PEERSON J, LOVE B, ACHTERBERG C, MURPHY SP. 2001. Food insecurity is positively related to overweight in women. J Nutrition 1738-45.
WOO J, HO SC, YU ALM, SHAM A. 2002. Is waist circumference a useful measure in predicting health outcomes in the elderly? Int J Obesity 26(10): 1349-55. .
[WHO] WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1998. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland: In: WHO Technical Report series 894. World Health Organization. 253p.
ZERBE K, DOMNITEI D. 2004. Eating disorders at middle age, Part 1 and 2. Eating Disorders Review 15(2).