Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Dairy Products in the Philippines
Djoko Kisworo1, Francisco B. Elegado2 and Virginia L. Barraquio3*
1Faculty of Animal Husbandry, University of Mataram Lombok, NTB 83117, Indonesia
2BIOTECH, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna
3Animal and Dairy Sciences Cluster, Dairy Training and Research Institute
College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, Laguna
Probiotic products that contain live, beneficial microorganisms that provide health benefits have gained popularity among consumers. Fifteen probiotic bacteria were isolated from probiotic dairy products: Chamyto® and Yakult®. All the 14 isolates were Gram positive, catalase negative, rods. One isolate was Gram positive, catalase negative, coccus. The biochemical reaction profiles of 6 selected isolates showed that they were all Lactobacillus paracasei. Their ITS-PCR products showed 65% similarity with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing results indicated that the identities of the 3 isolates, 1C10, 2Y9, and 3C10 showed complete (100%) similarity with the 16S rRNA gene of Lb. paracasei. However, 1 isolate, 1Y9, showed 98% similarity with the 16S rRNA gene of Enterococcus faecalis.
Various beneficial microorganisms, most notably lactic acid bacteria, have evolved and adapted to live in symbiotic association between each other and in most regions of their host including the skin and the gastro–intestinal tract (GIT). The beneficial bacteria for health purposes for humans and animals are termed probiotic, literally “for life” (Hood & Zottola 1989). According to Salminen (1996), a probiotic is a live microbial culture or cultured dairy product that beneficially influences the health and nutrition of the host. Some of the best understood probiotic bacteria include members of the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera (Tannock 2005). Because of their ability to produce lactic acid as the main fermentation product, these probiotic bacteria are also known as lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The genus Bifidobacterium is neither biochemically LAB nor phylogenetically close to LAB, but they also aid in digestion and promote colon health (Bjorkstein et al. 2001; Limsowtin et al. 2003). Specifically, microorganisms used as probiotics are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lb. plantarum, Lb. casei, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb.fermentum, Lb. reuterii, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bf. animalis subsp. lactis, Bf. bifidum, Bf. longum subsp. infantis, Bf. adolescentis, Bf. longum, Bf. breve, Enterococcus faecalis, Ec. faecium, and Saccharomyces boulardii (Conway 1996; Tannock 2005; Holzapfel et al. 1998)
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