Genetic Diversity of Morus Species of Indigenous and Exotic Accessions Evaluated by Important Agronomical Traits
Amalaendu Ticader* and Chandrakana K. Kamble
Central Sericultural Germplasm Resource Center
Thally Road, Tamil Nadu, India
The genetic diversity and relationship among 50 mulberry germplasm accessions from India and abroad were evaluated for 8 agronomical important traits at Central Sericultural Germplasm Resources Centre (CSGRC), Hosur, Tamil Nadu, India. Significant variations between indigenous and exotic mulberry accessions were observed in different agronomical traits. There were significant variations in 8 agronomic traits among the tested mulberry accessions. Genetic background and environment are the main factors influencing leaf yield. Correlation matrix of different traits showed that leaf yield is a combination of multiple traits and plays a significant role. Ward’s minimum variance cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distances of 8 agronomic traits grouped the indigenous and exotic accessions into 9 clusters. Maximum accessions were grouped in cluster VI and minimum in cluster VIII. The CIMMYT selection indices were employed to group and select the suitable mulberry accessions. Indian accession MI-0416 performed better followed by MI-0376 and Thailand accession ME-0058 than other test germplasm accessions. Both the Indian and exotic accessions have the potential to select and could be important germplasm resources for enriching the genetic background of Indian mulberry accessions through crop improvement program.
The horizontal expansion of sericulture in traditional and non-traditional states has made it necessary to develop mulberry varieties specific to different agro-climatic zones. The importance of research for the progress of sericulture in India was realized in the beginning of the 19th century. Before India's independence, sericulture was mostly practiced in the traditional belt of West Bengal, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, and Karnataka. Sericulture gained momentum with the establishment of the Central Silk Board (CSB) in 1949, as a national nodal agency for planning, monitoring, and extension of sericulture development program in the country. Presently, sericulture is widely distributed in different states of India. The different research institutes have been involved in developing improved varieties to cope with increasing demand and, subsequently, more exotic mulberry germplasms were introduced in India and used as parent material for crop improvement. Presently, the improved varieties in use are mostly developed involving exotic accessions as parent (Tikader & Kamble 2007).
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