Cytological Studies of Selected Medicinal Plants: Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotz., Moringa oliefera Lam., Chatharanthus roseus (L.) Don and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn.


Merlyn S. Mendioro*, Maria Genaleen Q. Diaz, Maria Theresa B. Alcantara,
Oscar J. Hilario, Patrocinio Mateo and Reycel D.M. Maghirang

Genetics and Molecular Biology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna, Philippines

corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Meioses I and II in young flower buds of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotz. (poinsettia), Moringa oleifera Lam. (malunggay), and Catharanthus roseus (L.) Don. (periwinkle) were studied using iron-acetocarmine squash technique. The chromosome number of C. roseus is 2n=16 while both M. oleifera and E. pulcherrima have 2n=28. Although late disjunction and presence of laggards were noted at Metaphase I, Anaphase I and II, Telophase I and II were 100% normal. These would indicate that lagging chromosomes were able to catch up, reached the opposite poles, and were included in daughter nuclei. Highly normal meiosis I and II resulted to high pollen fertility (90.62 to 91.91%). On the other hand, acetocarmine squash preparations of root tip cells of Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. (manzanilla) pre-treated with 0.5% colchicine for 2 hours revealed that the diploid chromosome number ranged from 44 to 48. The chromosomes were monocentric. Based on the position of the centromeres, the chromosomes were categorized into three groups, namely; Group I-median, Group II-submedian, and Group III-subterminal. Relative lengths of the chromosomes ranged from 0.40 to 1.00.



Plant products are widely used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food industries. Many pharmaceutical companies in the Western World depend on many plants for their medicinal properties. Pharmacopoeias have developed from. . . .





CONCHA JA. 1980. Phil. National Formulary. 1st ed. National Science Development Board Taguig, Metro Manila. 17p.

DARLINGTON CD. 1963. Chromosome Botany and the Origin of Cultivated Plants. New York: Hafner Pub. Co. 201p.

DARLINGTON, WYLIE. 1945. Chromosome Atlas of Flowering Plants. London: George Allen and Co. Inc., Ltd. 37p.

DE PADUA LS, LUGOD, PANCHO JV 1977. Handbook of Philippine Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1. Laguna, Philippines: UPLB Documentation and Information Section. 39p.

DE PADUA LS, PANCHO JV 1983. Handbook on Phil.Medicinal Plants Vol. 4. Laguna, Philippines: University of the Philippines, Los Baños Information Section. 68p.

DE PADUA LS 1996. Medicinal Plants. Philippines: Philippines Island Pub. House Inc. 54p.

ESCOTE LJ 1978. Cytological and morphological study of Saccharum spontaneum and related genera in the Philippines and S. officinarum hybrids. [M.S. Thesis] Laguna, Philippines: University of the Philippines Los Baños 154p.

EWART MS, WALKER DE. 1960. Chromosome numbers of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Klotsch. J Heredity 51: 203-208.

FONTANEL A, TABATA AM. 1986. Production of Secondary Metabolites by Plant Tissue and Cell Cultures: Present Aspects and Prospects. Lausanne, Switzerland: Nestle Research News. 65p.

KINGSTON DC, SAMI A. 1979. Cytotoxicity of modified indole alkaloids. J Pharm Sci 66(1): 1483.

LEVAN A, FREDGA K, SANDBERG AA. 1964. Nomenclature for centromeric position on chromosomes. Hereditas 52: 201-218.

MOYER LS. 1934. Electrophoresis of latex and chromosome numbers of poinsettias. Bot Gaz 95: 678- 685.

PRATT WB. 1994. The Anticancer Drugs. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford Press. Inc. p. 189-191.

QUISUMBING E. 1978. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Manila: Katha Pub. Co. Inc. 507p.

SHARMA AK, SHARMA A. 1959. Chromosomal alterations in relation to speciation. Bot Rev 25(3): 514- 535.

SINHA SS, ACHARIA A. 1975. Meiotic analysis in some varieties of Lens culinaris. Cytologia 40: 269.

TARAR JL. 1980. Comparison of ethyl-methyl sulfonate and radiation induced meiotic abnormalities in Turnera ulmifolia L. var. angustifolia Wild. Cytologia 45: 221-223.