Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Associated with Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) as Influenced by by Soil Physico-Chemical Properties
A. Sreevani and B.N. Reedy
Mycology & Plant Pathology Lab., Department of Botany,
Osmania University, Hyderabad, India
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi supporting the rhizosphere soils of tomato (Lycopersicom esculentum Mill.) and their relation to some soil physico-chemical characters has been studied. Altogether ten soils have been surveyed, all of them are sandy loam type and most of them are deficient in N, P, K and other nutrients. A total of 20 different AM fungal species belonging to 5 genera i.e., Acaulospora, Entrophosphora, Gigaspora, Glomus and Sclerocystis were observed. Among the fungi, the genus Glomus is represented by seven species namely G. fasciculatum, G. hoi, G. halon, G. monosporum, G. mosseae, G. reticulata and G. aggregatum;Acaulospora by six species namely A. dilatata, A. laevis, A. morrowiae, A. nicolsonii and A. rehmii; Sclerocystis by three species namely S. pakistanica, S. sinuosa and S. microcarpa; and one species each of Entrophosphora i.e., E. schenckii and Gigaspora, G. margarita. Among the ten localities studied, Osmania University Botanical Garden (S-8) and Shamshabad (S-10) were found to have a greater number of AM fungi. Soils with neutral to slightly alkaline pH (pH 7 to pH 8) had a greater number of AM fungal propagules i.e., 1228 spores/100 g soil whereas alkaline soils with pH 8.5 to pH 9.5, (pH higher than 8.0) have not favored mycorrhizal fungi. The maximum number of spores (1228 spores/100 g soil) of AM fungi was obtained in soils with more than 30% of moisture content. However, soils with less than 20% of moisture did not support the growth of AM fungi (419 spores/100 g soil). Soils, which are nutritionally deficient in zinc, copper, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were observed to have a greater number of AM fungi propagules (1228 spore/100 g soil). On the other, the soil with high levels of the above mentioned nutrients inhibited the population of AM fungi (419 spores/100 g soil).
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are key components of terrestrial ecosystems as they colonize plant root systems and provide nutritional benefits to the host plant. In addition, colonization may also enhance the growth of the host plants and their tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The beneficial effect of the AM symbiosis on plant growth and development occurs as a complex (molecular) mechanism between the two symbiotic partners. In this study, ten fields of tomato grown in and around Hyderabad, A.P., India were surveyed for AM fungal. . . .
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