Comparative Toxicity of Neem Fruit Extract and Cypermethrin Against Tribolium confusum Hbst. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Papilio demoleus Linn. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)


M. Farhanullah Khan and S. Musaffar Ahmed

Sourthernzone Agricultural Research Center
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
University Campus Karachi–75270, Pakistan



Tribolium confusum Hbst. adults were exposed to Neem fruit extract (NFE) and cypermethrin impregnated filter papers while Papalio demoleus L. 2nd instar larvae were treated topically with the selected dose. The mortality counts were made after an exposure period of 24 hours.

The LD50 values of NFE and cypermethrin against T. confusum was found to be 222.887 µg/cm2 and 0.258 µg/cm2, respectively, while the log probit regression equation was calculated as Y= 3.27x -2.67 with heterogeneity factor, χ2 (Chi Square) 2.607 and Y= 1.52x + 5.89 with heterogeneity factor χ2 (Chi Square) 1.236 respectively. Against P. demoleus 2nd instar larvae LD50 value of NFE and cypermethrin was found to be 6.155 µg / larva and 0.000365 µg / larva while the log probit regression equation was calculated as Y = 1.85x + 3.54 and heterogeneity factor, χ2 (Chi Square) 15.21 and Y = 0.922x + 8.169 and heterogeneity factor, χ2 (Chi Square) 5.124, respectively.



All parts of the neem tree have some biologically active components that are responsible for checking the insect population. Azadirachtin, isolated from neem fruit, has been proven to be the tree's main agent for combating against insect (BOSTID 1993). Moreover, resistance does not develop in insect against neem (Vollinger 1987, 1992, 1995; Naqvi & Tabassum 1992). To date. . . .





ATWAL A. 1976. Agriculture pests of India and South East Asia Kalyani Publishers, Dehli, India. 479p.

BADAWI A. 1981. Studies on some aspects of the biology and ecology of the Citrus butterfly Papilio demoleus L. (Lepidoptera, Papalionidae) in Saudi Arabia. Zeit-ang. Entomol. 91(3): 286-292.

BOSTID US. 1993. Neem: A Tree for solving Global Problem. Na­tional Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington D-C. 141p.

FINNEY DJ. 1967. Probit Analysis (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hashim S. 1998. Determination of toxicity and teratogenic effects of Match (IGR) against 3rd instar larvae of citrus but­terfly, Papilio demoleus. M.Sc. Thesis submitted to University of Karachi, Pakistan.

JAHAN M, AHMED I, NAQVI SNH. 1990. Toxicity of Juliflorine and Morgosan-O against 3rd instar larvae of Musca domestica and its after effect on Morphogenesis. Proc. Pakistan Congr. Zool. 10: 293-300.

KASANA AM, HASHMI AA, KHAN YA, SHAKOORI AR. 1995. Leaf consumption by larvae of the lemon butterfly, Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) treated with Margosan-O. (Abst.) 5th Nation. Conf. Plant Scient. March 1995, Islamabad.

KHAN MZ, NAQVI SNH, TABASSUM R, AZMI MA, RANI S. 1995. Determination of Tolerance in Aedes aegypti L. against cypermethrin and neem fractions. Pakistan J. Entomol. Karachi 10(1-2): 25-30.

KHAN MF, AHMED SM. 2000a. Toxicity of neem fruit extract & seed oil against Oxycarenus (heteroptera) pest of cotton crop. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia (Zoologia), Poland 42: 17-21. 

KHAN MF, AHMED SM. 2000b. Toxicity of neem leaf against Musca domestica as compared to DDVP. Turkish J. Zool. 24: 219-23.

KHAN MF, KHAN MA, TABASSUM R. 2000. Effects of neem ex­tract against mosquitoes and killifish. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 3(6): 1037-38.

MUNIR A, YASMIN N, TASNEEM S. 1996. Toxicity of bakayan fruit extract as compared to cypermethrin against citrus butter­fly. (unpublished)

MUNIR A, YASMIN N, TABASSUM R, NAQVI SNH, TASNEEM S. 1997. Toxicity of SDS and BF (plant extracts) in comparison with cypermethrin against 3rd instar larvae of citrus butterfly. Pakistan J. Entomol., Karachi 12(1-2): 23-28.

NAQVI SNH. 1996. Prospects and development of a neem based pesticide in Pakistan. Proc. Pakistan Congr. Zool. 16: 325-338.

NAQVI SNH, NURULAIN SM, AZMI MA, ASDAQUE ST. 1989. Effect of neem fractions and malathion against white flies Aleur­obus barodensis on bringal crop Solanum melongena. Sarhad j. Agric. 5: 25-28.

NAQVI SNH, PARVEEN F. 1991. Toxicity and residual effect of Nerium indicum crude extract as compared with Coopex against adults of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Pakistan J. Entomol., Karachi 6(1-2): 35-44.

NAQVI SNH, TABASSUM R. 1992. Probable development of resistance against neem extracts (RB-a) and cyfluthrin (Solfac 10%) in Musca domestica L. (PCSIR strain). Pakistan J. Entomol. Karachi 7: 9-16.

NAQVI SNH, SCHMIDT GH. 1993. Comparative effect of three neem fractions (tetranortriterpenoids) on Musca domestica L. larvae. Pakistan J. Entomol. Karachi 8(2): 5-14.

NAQVI SNH, TEMURI KH, NURULAIN SM, AHMED I, LARSON RO. 1995. Toxicity and effect of neem fractions (RBU-9, RB-b and Margosan-O) on Phosphatases and Protein Pattern of Culax fatigans (K.U.strain). Pakistan. J. Pharm. 12(2): 49-52.

NAQVI SNH, RANI S, TABASSUM R, AHMED I. 1996. Toxicity of neem extracts (RB-a and RB-b) in comparision with Azodrin, Birlane and cyfluthrin against Dacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Teph­ritidae). Pakistan. J. Pl. Sci. 2(2): 209-214.

NAQVI SNH, TABASSUM R, KHAN MZ. 1996. Toxicity determination of neem compounds (NfC & NC) and Dimilin by two methods against Callosobrochus analis. 2nd Entomol. Congr. Islamabad.

NURULAIN SM, TABASSUM R, NAQVI SNH. 1989. Toxicity of neem fractions and malathion against Oxycarenus lugubris Motsch (Dusky cotton bug) wild strain (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Pakistan J. Entomol., Karachi 4(1-2): 13-24.

NURULAIN SM, NAQVI SNH, TABASSUM R. 1994. Synergistic formulation of neem product and its IGR effect on Musca domestica L. (PCSIR Strain). Pakistan J. Entomol., Karachi 9(1&2): 43-50.

NURULAIN SM, TABASSUM R, NAQVI SNH, KHAN MZ, KHAN MF. (1997). Change in Nucleic acids (RNA & DNA) contents of Musca domestica under the effects of Neem Compounds and DDVP. Pakistan J. Pharmacol. 14(1): 57-62.

SCHMUTTERER H. 1995. The neem tree. pub: VCH New York, Wein­heim, U.S.A., Japan, & U.K.

SHARMA HC, LEUSCHNER K, SANKARAM AVB, GUNASESHAR D, MARTHANDAMURTHI M, BHASKARIAH K, SUBRAMANYAN M, SULTANA N. 1984. Insect antifeedants and growth inhibiters from (Azadir­achta indica. Proc. 2nd Int. Neem Conf. (Rauischholzhausen 1983). p. 291- 320 (1983).

SOMBATSIRI K, TIGVATTANONT S. 1984. Effects of neem extracts on some insect pests of economic importance in Thailand. Proc. 2nd Int. Neem Conf. 1983, p. 95-100.

SOMBATSIRI K, TEMBOONKEAT. 1987. Efficacy of an improved neem kernal extract in the control of Spodoptera litura and Plutella xylostella in laboratory conditions & field trials. Proc. 3rd Int. Neem Conf. Nairobi 1986: 195-204.

TABASSUM R, JAHAN M, NAQVI SNH. 1994. Determination of toxicity of malathion and RBa, neem extract against Tribolium castaneum adult. Neem newslet. 11(1): 7-9.

TEMURI KH. 1987. Toxicity of some neem extracts, their effect on enzyme activity and protein pattern against mosquitoes. M.Sc. thesis submitted to the Department of Zoology, University of Karachi.

VOLLINGER M. 1987. A possible development of resistance against neem seed kernel extract and deltamethrin in Plutella xylostella. 3rd Proc. Int. Neem. Conf. Nairobi 1986: 543-54.

VOLLINGER M. 1992. Untersuchungen zur resistentzbildung gegen insektizide wirkstoffe des niem baumes Azadirechta indica A .juss im verleich mit synthetischen insektiziden bei zucht populationen der kohlmotte. Plutella xylostella L. (Lep.,Plutellidae). Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Giessen, Germany. 

VOLLINGER M. 1995. Studies of the probability of development of resistance of Plutella xylostella to neem products, In: The neem tree,ed: Schmutterrer, H. p. 477-483., pub: V.H.C., Weinheim, U.S.A., Japan, U.K.

YASMIN N, KHAN MF, JAHAN M, NAQVI SNH, TABASSUM R. 1995. Toxicological studies of Trichlorfon (OP-insecticide) and RB-a (Neem Extract) against adults of Drosphila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Pakistan. J. Entomol. Karachi. 10(1&2): 65-68.