Characterization of the Biosynthetic Potential of the β-proteobacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans Strain ISP2-142-O-2-A Using Microbiological, Chemical, and Genomic Approaches
Miguel Azcuna1,2*, Lilibeth Salvador-Reyes1, Jortan Tun1, Arturo Lluisma1,3,
Iris Diana Uy1, Lovette Cunanan1, Maria Auxilia Siringan4, and Gisela P. Concepcion1,3
1The Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines
2Verde Island Passage Center for Oceanographic Research and Aquatic Life Sciences,
Batangas State University – ARASOF, Nasugbu, Batangas 4231 Philippines
3Philippine Genome Center, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines
4Natural Science Research Center, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines
This study characterized the biosynthetic potential of the bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain ISP2-142-O-2-A associated with the sponge Haliclona sp. nov. Chemistry- and bioactivity-guided purification of extracts from A. xylosoxidans afforded three compounds (1–3). The nucleoside 5’-deoxyadenosine (Compound 1) showed significant HIV cytoprotection activity with no cytotoxic activity to normal mammalian cells. The alkylquinolines 2-heptylquinolin-4-ol (Compound 2) and 2-nonylquinolin-4-ol (Compound 3) showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and cytotoxicity to normal mammalian cells. This is the first report of Compounds 1–3 in A. xylosoxidans, and it is proposed that they have distinct roles for the bacterium to persist as a sponge-associated microorganism. Genomic analysis revealed the presence of 10 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), indicating the potential of A. xylosoxidans strain ISP2-142-O-2-A as a source organism for other classes of bioactive natural products.
The coral triangle located in the Indo-Pacific region is home to the most diverse sponge-assemblages in the world. Sponges are sessile filter feeders that provide the benthic framework of the coral reef ecosystem. Being the earliest multicellular organisms, they have well-defined layers of cellular organization, and their unique body structure is well adapted for filtering microorganisms from seawater (Santos-Gandelman et al. 2014). Sponges can host horizontally- or vertically-acquired microorganisms in their tissues (Lee et al. 2001). Microorganisms comprise 40–60% of the biomass of the sponge (Hentschel et al. 2006), and sponge microbial communities are composed of both specialists and generalists – with core microbiomes characterized by generalist symbionts with an under-representation of specialist symbionts (Thomas et al. 2015). These bacteria may be a source of nutrition or secondary metabolites for the sponge, with the latter functioning as allelochemicals that are useful for competition and evasion from spongivores. Indeed, symbiotic microorganisms are now regarded to be the true producers of the majority of secondary metabolites found in sponges. In the sponge Theonella swinhoei, the isolated bioactive compound onnamide was traced to the phylotypes Candidatus Entotheonella factor and Candidatus Entotheonella gemina, which are extensively distributed in this sponge (Bhushan et al. 2017, Piel et al. 2004). . . . read more
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