Evaluation of Pre-slaughter and Slaughter Data from Lechon-size Black Tiaong and Kalinga Native Pigs (Organic Farm) and Landrace, Large White and their F1 Crosses (Conventional Farm)

Orville L. Bondoc*, Jorge Michael D. Dominguez,
Cristy M. Bueno, and Oliver D. Abanto

Institute of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Food Science,
University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna 4031 Philippines

*Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


This study aimed to compare pre-slaughter and slaughter data from 40 lechon-size pigs belonging to native breeds (i.e., Black Tiaong and Kalinga) raised in an organic production system and commercial breeds (i.e., Landrace, Large White, and their F1 crosses) obtained from a conventional swine breeding farm. Native breeds had significantly (p<0.01) longer head and snout, shorter ears and body length, wider shoulders but narrower rump width, lower rump height, and larger neck circumference than commercial breeds. Native breeds had significantly lower live weight (p<0.05) but were older at slaughter (p<0.01) than commercial breeds. Hot carcass weight including the head, hot dressing percentage, and % chilled carcass yield were lower in native breeds. Weight of head, stomach, female reproductive organs, and blood were significantly heavier (p<0.01) in native breeds than commercial breeds. Weight of liver, kidneys, spleen, and small intestines were however, significantly heavier (p<0.01) in commercial breeds. The % edible internal organs and body parts in native breeds was significantly higher in terms of head, ears, stomach, visceral fats, and female reproductive organs but significantly lower (p<0.05) in terms of the liver, kidneys, and small intestines compared to commercial breeds. The slaughter parameters above may have direct implications on production targets of those involved in our country’s lechon value chain. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found between types of production system in terms of weight loss during transit, tail length, wither height, heart girth, midriff girth, and flank girth, chilled carcass weight and drip loss percentage, and weight of ears, tail, heart, lungs, large intestines, and visceral fats.


Originally introduced as a Spanish pork dish, the lechon refers to a suckling pig (2-6 weeks old) that is slow-roasted, although nowadays lechon sizes may vary from lechon de leche (5-10 kg), small (10-15 kg), medium (15-20 kg), large (20-25 kg), and extra-large (25-30 kg). Pork offals (i.e., lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart) and lean meat are simmered in a rich, gravy of pork blood and vinegar and sautéed with garlic, onion, and long sweet peppers – popularly known as dinuguan (pork blood stew). Pork offals are relatively cheap and used together with other edible body parts in common Filipino dishes such as sisig, bopis, kilawin, isaw, adobo, etc. . . . . read more


ANDERSEN HJ. 1999. What is pork quality? In: Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. Zurich, Switzerland.
BONDOC OL. 2015. Organic Livestock Farming and Breeding toward Food Security of Smallholder Farmers in the Tropics. SEARCA Agriculture and Development Discussion Paper Series No. 2015-2. Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), Los Baños. College, Laguna 4031 Philippines; 2015, 91p.
BONDOC OL, DOMINGUEZ JMD, VEGA RSA, SANDOVAL RF, SANTIAGO RC. 2017. Farrowing and weaning performance of Black Tiaong and Kalinga native pig breeds at a conservation farm, Philippines. Philipp J Vet Anim Sci 43(1):22-32.
CANDEK-POTOKAR M, LEFAUCHEUR L, ZLENDER B, BONNEAU M. 1998. Effect of slaughter and/or age on histological characteristics of pig longissimus dorsi muscle as related to meat quality. Meat Sci 52:195-203.
GARCÍA-MACÍAS JA, GISPERT M, OLIVER MA, DIESTRE A, ALONSO P, MUÑOZ-LUNA A, SIGGENS K, CUTHBERT HEAVENS D. 1996. The effects of cross, slaughter weight and halothane genotype on leanness and meat and fat quality in pig carcasses. Anim Sci J 63:487-496.
GRAVES HB. 1984. Behavior and ecology of wild and feral swine (Sus scrofa). J Anim Sci 58(2):482-492.
HUFF-LONERGAN E, BAAS TJ, MALEK M, DEKKERS JCM, PRUSA K, ROTHSCHILD MF. 2002. Correlations among selected pork quality traits. J Anim Sci 80:617-627.
IBARRA PI. 1983. Meat Processing for Small and Medium Scale Operations. Philippines: UPLB. 418p.
KYRIAZAKIS I, WHITTEMORE CT. 2006. Appetite and voluntary feed intake (Chapter 13). In: Whittemore’s Science and Practice of Pig Production (3rd edition). Kyriazakis I, Whittemore CT eds. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. UK. p. 417-437.
LATORRE MA, LÁZARO R, GRACIA MI, NIETO M, MATEOS GG. 2003. Effect of sex and terminal sire genotype on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of pigs slaughtered at 117 kg body weight. Meat Sci 65:1369-1377.
MULLER E, MOSER G, BARTENSCHLAGER H, GELDERMANN H. 2000. Trait values of growth, carcass and meat quality in Wild Boar, Meishan and Pietrain pigs as well as their crossbred generations. J Anim Breed Genet 117:189-202.
PLUSKE JR, HAMPSON DJ, WILLIAMS IH. 1997. Factors influencing the structure and function of the small intestine in the weaned pig: a review. Livest Prod Science 51:215-236.
SAS Institute Inc. 2009. SAS/STAT ® 9.2 User’s Guide, second edition.
SIMM G, LAMBE N, BUNGER L, NAVAJAS E, ROEHE R. 2009. Use of meat quality information in breeding programmes. In: Improving the Sensory and Nutritional Quality of Meat. Kerry JP, Ledward D. eds. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Limited. p. 264-291.
SKEWESA O, MORALESA R, GONZÁLEZA F, LUIB J, HOFBAUERC P, PAULSEN P. 2008. Carcass and meat quality traits of wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) with 2n=36 karyotype compared to those of phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37and 2n= 38) raised under same farming conditions. 1. Carcass quantity and meat dressing. Meat Sci 80:1200-1204.
WOOD J, WHITTEMORE CT. 2006. Pig meat and carcass quality (Chapter 2). In: Whittemore’s Science and Practice of Pig Production (3rd edition). Kyriazakis I, Whittemore CT eds. Blackwell Publishing Ltd UK. p. 4-64.