Determinants of Chronic Energy Deficiency and
Overweight/Obesity Among Non-Pregnant Mothers
19 Years and Older in the Philippines

Eva A. Goyena*, Ma. Lynell Valdeabella-Maniego,
and Mildred O. Guirindola

Nutritional Assessment and Monitoring Division
Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology
Bicutan, Taguig City, Philippines

*corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


The study aimed to identify household and maternal characteristics associated with chronic energy deficiency (CED) and overweight/obesity among non-pregnant mothers 19 years old and above in the Philippines. Cross-sectional analysis of the “2011 Updating of the Nutritional Status of Filipino Children and Other Population Groups”, a nationwide nutrition survey conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST), was done using descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Results showed that overweight/obesity prevalence (Body Mass Index/BMI)>25.0 kg/m2) was three-folds higher (31.2%) than CED (BMI<18.5) prevalence (10.0%). Single mothers (adjusted Odds Ratio/aOR 1.52, 95% CI=1.13-2.05), mothers with live-in status (aOR 1.39, 95% CI=1.15-1.66) and 19- to 29-year-old mothers (aOR 1.22, 95% CI=1.01-1.48) were more likely to have CED than their counterparts from other marital and age groups. On the other hand, the risk of becoming overweight/obese was found to be higher for mothers 40 years and older (aOR 1.26, 95% CI=1.06-1.50), had at least elementary education (aOR 1.23, 95% CI=1.04-1.45 ), from the richest wealth quintile (aOR 1.44; 95% CI=1.20-1.72) and from households with less than five members (aOR 1.17; 95% CI=1.05-1.32) than their counterparts in other age, educational attainment, wealth quintile and household size groups. The study provides evidence on the emerging double burden of malnutrition among Filipino mothers based on BMI classification. These findings may provide insights to strategies and advocacies that promote healthy lifestyle to improve the nutritional status of Filipino mothers.

The nutritional status of a mother has profound health effects that span throughout the human life stage, highlighting its importance as an indicator of her overall health and survival, a predictor of pregnancy outcome and fetal growth and an influencing factor in subsequent early childhood survival, growth and development (Black et al. 2013). Maternal undernutrition, indicated by a body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m2, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies, is associated with short and long term consequences, including increased risk of complications during delivery, higher risk of giving birth to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, higher risk of childhood stunting in the first year of life, increased risk of childhood infections (e.g., diarrhea, pneumonia and measles), impaired cognitive development, lower educational attainment, diminished work capacity and economic productivity (Black et al. 2008) and increased susceptibility to obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adult life (Victora et al. 2008). . . . . read more

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