MENU

Effects of Organic Fertilizer on Hepatic Lipid Levels and
Cholinesterase Activity in
Channa punctatus (Bloch).

Susanta Nath1*, Chiroprotim Saha2,
Himadri Sekhar Bhowmick2, and Valerio Matozzo3

1Government G. D. College, Singur, West Bengal, India.
2Department of Zoology, Bidhannagar College
EB-2.Sector-1 Kolkata-700 064, India
3Department of Biology, University of Padova,
Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy

ABSTRACT
The effects of mustard oil cake (MOC) on liver lipid levels and brain cholinesterase activity of Channa punctatus (Bloch) were assessed. Due to excessive use, these organic fertilizers enter the freshwater ecosystem as runoff during irrigation and heavy rain, reaching concentrations higher than those required in the rearing pond. Fish were exposed to 0.42 mgl-1 MOC for 35 days. The results reveal that liver lipid levels were higher during exposure in both control and treated fish when compared to 0 day levels. Lipid levels decreased slightly after 21 (in both treated and untreated fish) and 35 days (in untreated fish). Results also showed an increase in brain cholinesterase activity in MOC-exposed fish.

Key words: brain, Channa punctatus, cholinesterase, lipid, liver, mustard oil cake

INTRODUCTION
With the increase of human habitat and conspicuous agriculture and fishery practices, organic pollution is now considered to be a major trouble in many regions of the world (Randall and Tusi 2002). In particular, fertilizers are used in ponds to increase the production of plankton, both autotrophic and heterotrophic levels which augment fish production. Meanwhile, a combination of mustard oil cake (MOC), cattle-dung and poultry manure (6:3:1) at 11 000 kg/ha is also effective for the production of zooplankton in carp nursery ponds (Grag and Bhatnagar 2000; ICAR  2006).
Organic fertilizers are commonly used in agriculture and fisheries in India and other parts of the world. Organic fertilizers are considered to be pollutants in aquatic ecosystems, mainly due to the indiscriminate and extensive uses. To identify the neurotoxicity of chemicals such as organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides, measurement of cholinesterase (ChE) activity was previously used as a biomarker of neurotoxicity (Matozzo et al. 2005; Narbonne et al. 2005).

[Download Full Text]

REFERENCES
AGRAHARI S, GOPAL K, PANDEY KC. 2006. Biomarkers of monocrotophos in afreshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch). J Environ Biol 27(2): 453-457.
ARDUINI F, RICCI F, TUTA CS, MOSCONE D, AMINE A AND PALLESCHI G. 2006. Detection of carbonic and organophosphorus pesticides in water samples using a cholinesterase biosensor based on Prussian Blue modified screen printed electrode. Analytica Chimica Acta 580 (2):155-162.
COPPAGE DL, MATHEWS  E, COOK GH, KNIGHT J. 1975. Brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition in fish as a diagnosis of environmental poisoning by malathion, O-o-dimethyl S- (1, 2 Dicarbethoxy Ethyl) Phosphorodithioate. Pestic Biochem Physiol 5: 536-542.
DAS D, DAS A. 2010. Statistics in Biology and Psychology. 6th ed. Academic Publishers, Kolkata, India. 294p.
DAS BK, MUKHERJEE SC. 2003. Toxicity of cypermethrin in Labeorohita fingerlings: biochemical, enzymatic and haematological consequences. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 134(1):109-121.
FERRARI A, VENTURINO A, PECHEN DE D’ANGELO AM. 2004. Time course of brain cholinesterase inhibition and recovery following acute and subacute azinphosmethyl, 2 parathion and carbaryl exposure in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Ecotox Environ Safe 57(3):420-425.
FINNEY D J. 1971. Probit Analysis, Third Edition, London: Cambridge University Press, London. 333p.
FLAMMARION P, NOURY P, GARRIC J. 2002.The measurement of cholinesterase activities as a biomarker in chub (Leuciscus cephalus): the fish length should not be ignored. Environ Pollut 120(2):325-330.
FOLCH J, LEES M,  SLOANE STANLEY GH. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226 (1):497-509.
FRINGS CS, FENDLEY TW, DUNN RT, QUEEN CA. 1972. Improved Determination of Total Serum by the Sulfo-Phospho-Vanillin Reaction.  Clin Chem 18(2):673-674.
FULTON MH, KEY PB. 2001. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in estuarine fish and invertebrates as an indicator of organophosphorus insecticide exposure and effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:37-45
GIJARE SS, TANTERPALE VT. 2014. Effects of CypErmethrin on Lipid and Cholesterol Contents of Fresh water Fish Channa orientalis (Bloch). PERIPEX  Indian J Research 3(8):200-201.
GRAG SK, BHATNAGAR A. 2000. Effect of fertilization frequency on pond productivity and fish biomass in still water ponds stocked with Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.). Aquac Res 31:409-414.
 GRUBER SJ, MUNN MD. 1998. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Arch Environ Contam Toxico l35: 391-396.
HEIDINGER CR, CRAWFORD SD. 1977. Effect of Temperature and Feeding rate on Liver-Somatic Index of the Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides   J Fish Res Board Can 34(5):633-638.
IBRAHIM H, KHEIR R, HELMI S, LEWIS J, CIANE M. 1998. Effects of Organophosphorus, Carbamate, Pyrethroid and Organochlorine Pesticides, and a Heavy Metal on Survival and Cholinesterase Activity of Chironomus riparius Meigen. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 60:448-455.
[ICAR] Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 2006. https://www.fao.org/fishery/affris/species.profile/catla/fertilizers-and-fertilization/en/.
JAVED M, USMANI N. 2015. Stress response of biomolecules (carbohydrate, protein and lipid profiles) in fish Channa puntatus inhabiting river polluted by Thermal Power Plant effluent. Saudi J Biol Sci 22:237-242.
KHAN NIAZI AH. 1986. Improvement in the Nutritive Value of Mustard seed cake Doctoral thesis, University of Punjub, Lahor, Pakistan.14p.  
KOENIG S, SOLE M. 2014. Muscular cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in deep-sea fish from the NW Mediterranean. Mar Environ Res 94:16-23.
LOCKHART WL, METNER DA, WARD FJ, SWANSON GM. 1985. Population and cholinesterase responses in fish exposed to malathion sprays. Pest Biochem Physiol 24:12- 18.
MATOZZO V, TOMEI A,  MARIN MG. 2005. Acetylcholinesterase as a biomarker of exposure to neurotoxic compounds in the clam Tapes philippinarum from the Lagoon of Venice. Mar Pollut Bull 50:1686-1693.
MURPHY LA, LEWBART GA, MEERDINK GL, BARGREN GL. 2005. Whole-blood and plasma cholinesterase levels in normal koi (Cyprinus carpio). J Vet Diagn Invest 17: 74-75.
NARBONNE JF, AARAB N, CLERANDEAU C, DAUBEZE M, NARBONNE J, CHAMPEAU O,  GARRIGUES P. 2005. Scale of classification based on biochemical markers in mussels: Application to pollution monitoring in Mediterranean coast and temporal trends . Biomarkers 10(1): 58-71.
PATIL MU, PATOLE SS. 2012. Effect of Malathion and Cypermethrin on  biochemical constituents of freshwater fish, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Ham-Buch). Int Jour Shodh Samikshaaur Mulyankan 4 (39):33-35.
PATHIRATNE A, CHANDRASEKERA LWHU, DE SERAM PKC. 2008. Effects of biological and technical factors on brain and muscle cholinesterases in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: implications for biomonitoring neurotoxic contaminations. Arch of Environ Contam Toxico 54(2): 309-317.
PISTONE G, EGUREN G, RODRIGUEZ-ITHURRALDE D. 2012. Inhibition, recovery and field responses of Astyanax fasciatus(Cuvier, 1819) brain cholinesterases upon exposure to azinphos-methyl. J Braz Soc Ecotoxicol 7 (2): 93-102.
RADHAIAH V, GIRIJA M, RAO KJ. 1987. Changes in selected biochemical parameters in the kidney and blood of the fish, T. mossambica (Peters) exposed to heptachlor. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39:1006-1011.
RANDALL DJ,  TSUI TKN. 2002. Ammonia toxicity in fish. Mar Pollut Bull 45:17-23.
RAMACHANDRAN S, SINGH SK, LARROCHE C,  SOCCOL CR, PANDEY A. 2007. Oil cakes and their biotechnological applications--a review. Bioresour Technol 98: 2000- 2009.
ROBBINS WE, HOPKINS TL, ROTH AR .1958. Application of the Colorimetric Whole-Blood Method to the Measurement of Bovine Red-Blood-Cell Cholinesterase Activity. J Econ Entomol 51:326-329.
SANCHO E, FERRANDO MD, TEN A, LLEO C,  ANDREU MOLINER E. 1998. Sub lethal bio-concentration of fenitrothion in the blood and brain of the European eel. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 60(5): 809-815.
SCHMIDT GH, IBRAHIM NMM, ABDALLAH MD. 1992. Long-term effects of heavy metals in food on developmental stages of Aiolopus thalassinus (Saltatoria: Acrididae). Arch Environ ContamToxicol 23 : 375-382.
SCHMIDT GH, IBRAHIM MM. 1994. Heavy-metal content in various body parts its impact on cholinesterase activity and binding glycoproteins in the grasshopper (Aiolopus thalassinus) adults. Ecotox Environ Safe 29: 148-164.
YADAV A, GOPESH A, PANDEY R, DEVENDRA R, SHARMA B. 2009. Acetylcholinesterase: a potential biochemical indicator for biomonitoring of fertilizer industry effluent toxicity in freshwater teleost, Channa striatus. Ecotoxicol 18(3): 325-333.
YAJI AJ, AUTA J. 2007. Sub-lethal effect of Monocrotophos on growth and food utilization of the African catfish Clariasgariepinus (Teugels). J Fisheries International 2(2): 127-129.
ZAR JH. 2009. Biostatistical Analysis, 4th ed. Pearson Education, New Delhi. 161,184p.