Physical Properties of Spirulina Phycocyanin Microencapsulated with Maltodextrin and Carrageenan
Eko Nurcahya Dewi*, Retno Ayu Kurniasih, and Lukita Purnamayanti
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Diponegoro University,
Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Semarang 50275 Indonesia
Phycocyanin as a source of natural blue dye is unstable to light, temperature, and pH during processing and storage. Microencapsulation is used to protect phycocyanin from external influences where the type and formulation of coating materials used may affect the characteristics of phycocyanin microcapsules. This study aims to evaluate the physical properties of encapsulated phycocyanin from Spirulina and the potential of maltodextrin in combination with κ-carrageenan in its microencapsulation process by spray drying. Microcapsules were prepared with five different concentrations of maltodextrin and κ-carrageenan i.e., 10% : 0%; 9.75% : 0.25%; 9.5% : 0.5%; 9.25% : 0.75%, and 9% : 1% (w/w). Results indicated that microcapsules of phycocyanin with 9% of maltodetxrin and 1% of κ-carrageenan as coating material produced the highest bulk density, particle size, and encapsulation efficiency, which were 1,501.27 kg ∙ m–3, 1,152.33 nm, and 48.87%, respectively. The differential scanning calorimeter thermogram and the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy measured the presence of phycocyanin, maltodextrin, and κ-carrageenan in microcapsules.
Key words: κ-carrageenan, maltodextrin, phycocyanin, physical properties
Nowadays, there has been an increase in the utilization of pigments from natural plants in the food industry as replacement for artificial coloring agents, in an effort to provide healthier food for consumers. Eriksen (2008) mentioned that Spriluna sp. is a microalga that contains large amount of pigments such as phycocyanin and alophycocyanin. The major problem for the pigments is associated with its application in food industries as coloring agent, since natural coloring agents show less resistance and low storage stability when exposed to oxygen, changes in temperature, pH, and other factors. . . . . read more
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