Detection of Anti-HBs, Anti-HBc and HBsAg among Pediatric Vaccinees Years after Primary Hepatitis B Immunization
A serological survey recruited 321 pediatric Hepatitis B (HB) vaccinees to: (1) determine the prevalence of anti-HBs years after HB immunization with either a 1.5 µg-dose plasma derived vaccine or a 10 µg-dose recombinant DNA vaccine, (2) determine anti-HBc seropositivity, and (3) test for HBsAg among the anti-HBc positive vaccinees. Kits employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used. At 5-11 years after HB immunization, 70.7% were seropositive for anti-HBs, the antibody protective against HB, while 7.2% had anti-HBc, the antibody that indicates previous natural HB virus (HBV) infection. Three (or 13%) of the anti-HBc positive individuals, or 0.9 % of the study population, were HBsAg-positive or had HBV infection at the time of the sero-survey. Due to the absence of baseline HBV marker data, it was not possible to determine whether anti-HBs positivity in anti-HBc positive individuals was induced by HBV infection or by the HB vaccine, and if HBV infection in 3 of the participants occurred before or after immunization. Anti-HBs prevalence solely attributable to the vaccine was determined and found to be 71.5% (or 211/295 anti-HBc tested individuals). This is a clear and strong evidence of the effectiveness of vaccines in inducing immunity, still detectable in more than 2/3 of the vaccinees, several years after immunization. This proportion may still be an underestimate since non-detection of anti-HBs in the rest of the vaccinees does not necessarily imply the absence of protection. HB Immunization is, thus, recommended to be a continuing and priority target of the health sector.
CHAN V, MENDOZA B, ORBASE P, FLORESE R, MADRASO E, BARZAGA, N. 1997. Immune Response To Three Doses Of 1.5 Microgram/Dose Of Hepatitis B Vaccine Among Infants in Bay, Laguna and Allen, Northern Samar. The Philipp J Pediatrics 46(1): 35-38.
DA VILLA G, PELUSO F, PICCIOTTO C, BENCIVENGA L, ELIA S, PELLICIA M. 1996. Persistence Of Anti-HBs in Children Vaccinated Against Viral Hepatitis B in the First Year Of Life : Follow-up at 5 to 10 Years. Vaccine 16: 1503-05.
DEL CANHO R, GROSHEIDE P, VOOGD-SCHOTANUS, HUISMAN W, HEIJTINK R, SCHALM S. 1994. Immunogenicity of Two Different Dosages (10 and 5 µg) of Recombinant DNA Hepatitis B Vaccine in Healthy Neonates. Vaccine 12(14): 1323-27.
DOMINGO E. 1995. Viral Hepatitis B: A Comprehensive Review From Virology to Control. Manila, Philippines: Philippine Council for Health Research and Development (PCHRD). 186p.
FREY S, DAGAN, R, ASHUR Y, CHEN X, IBARRA J, KOLLARITSCH H, MAZUR M, POLAND G, REISINGER K, WALTER E, VAN DAMME P, BRACONIER J, UHNOO I, WAHL M, BLATTER M, CLEMENTS D, GREENBERG D, JACOBSON R, NORRBY S, ROWE M, SHOUVAL D, SIMMONS S, VAN HATTUM J, WENNERHOLM S, GRESS J, CHAN I, KUTER B. 1999. Interference of Antibody Production to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in a Combination Hepatitis A/Hepatitis B Vaccine. J Infect Dis 180: 2018-22.
GONZAGA N, CO V, MAYBITUIN S, TUPASI T. 1995. Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Filipinos. MMC Proceedings 9: 138.
HASSAN M, AGOSTI J, REYNOLDS K, TANZMAN E, TREANOR J, EVANS. 1999. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor as an Adjuvant for Hepatitis B Vaccination of Healthy Adults. J Infect Dis 180: 2023-26.
KANE M. 1995. Global Programme For The Control Of Hepatitis B Infection. Vaccine 13(Supplement 1): S47-S49.
LANSANG M, DOMINGO E, JUBAN N, ALAGON D, TABABA J, MACAHOR L, AMARILLO M, LACAYA L. 1994. Randomized Controlled Field Trial Of Single Dose Versus Three Doses Of Hepatitis B Vaccine In Preventing The Hepatitis B Carrier State in Filipino Children. Manila, Philippines: International Development Research Centre, Canada (IDRC, Canada). 54p.
LEE P, LEE C, HUANG L, CHEN J, CHANG M. 1995. A Follow-up Study of Combined Vaccination with Plasma-derived and Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccines in Infants. Vaccine 13(17): 1685-89.
MEHEUS A. 1995. Risk of Hepatitis B in Adolescence and Young Adulthood. Vaccine 13(Supplement 1): S31-S34.
THIBAULT V, BENHAMOU Y, SEGURET C, BOCHET M, KATLAMA C, BRICAIRE F, OPOLON P, POYNARD T, AGUT H. 1999. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Mutations Associated with Resistance to Lamivudine in Patients Coinfected with HBV and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. J Clin Microbiol 37(9): 3013-16.
THOMAS H. 1990. The Hepatitis B Virus and the Host Response. J Hepatol 11: S83-S89.
WEST D, CALANDRA G. 1996. Vaccine-induced Immunologic Memory for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Implications on Policy for Booster Vaccination. Vaccine 14(11): 1019-27.
[WHO-WPR] World Health Organization In The Western Pacific Region. 2000. Report: Working Group On Prevention and Control Of Viral Hepatitis. Dec. 2-4, 1998, Tokyo, Japan.