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Philippine Species of Parmotrema (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae)

Paulina A. Bawingan1*, Mechell P. Lardizaval1, Praxedes F. Rosuman2,
Weenalei T. Fajardo3, Andrea Azuelo4, John A. Elix5, and Jae-Seoun Hur6

1Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines
2St. Paul’s College, Vigan, Ilocos Sur, Philippines
3Pangasinan State University, Lingayen, Pangasinan, Philippines
4Central Mindanao University, Bukidnon, Philippines
5Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
6Korean Lichen Research Institute, Suncheon National University, Suncheon, South Korea

*Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



This paper presents a taxonomic treatment of Parmotrema lichens (Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) collected in the Philippines at high altitudes where they abound, particularly in the mountainous regions of northern Luzon and Mindanao. A total of 30 Parmotrema species were identified: twelve being new records. Results suggest that the Philippines has a potentially rich unknown lichen diversity that remains to be further investigated. Many lichen species are restricted to unexplored forested areas, which in the Philippines are facing alarming degradation; hence, it is extremely important for these habitats to be conserved.


Parmotrema A. Massal. (1860) is a large genus of lichenized fungi in the family Parmeliaceae. The name Parmotrema refers to the perforate apothecia (Greek parmos = cup, and trema = perforation) (Feige 1998). Parmotrema was first segregated from Parmelia s.l. by Massalongo (1860) based on P. perforata as type. Hale (1974a) resurrected the genus and included in it all taxa incorporated in Parmelia subgenus Amphigymnia (Vain.) C. W. Dodge, including the Parmelia reticulata group previously included in Parmelia Ach. subgenus Parmelia. Parmotrema was subsequently subdivided by the separation of Rimelia (Hale & Fletcher 1990) and Rimeliella (Kurokawa 1991) or Canomaculina (Elix & Hale 1987; Elix 1997). A generic reclassification of parmelioid lichens based on phylogenetic studies, however, has recombined Rimelia, Canomaculina (Rimeliella) as well as Concamerella into Parmotrema (Blanco et al. 2005). Another phylogenetic analysis based on morphological, molecular and chemical data showed that the genera Flavoparmelia, Punctelia, Canoparmelia, Flavopunctelia, and Nesolechia are seemingly also nested within the Parmotrema clade (Crespo et al. 2010). More studies, however, need to be undertaken to resolve generic classification and synonymy . . . . read more

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