Review of Biopharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals from Rice Grain: Exploiting the Endosperm, Germ and Bran for High-value Innovation Rice By-products
Amor A. San Juan*
Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences,
Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija 3120 Philippines
Applying biotechnology innovation in rice is shown to produce promising biopharmaceuticals. The focus of this review is to critically examine the rice-derived biopharmaceuticals in contrast with rice-based therapeutics, its current progress, and future prospects. The article highlights the function-based analogy of an automobile car with the rice grain, aiming to understand the complexity of rice-based innovation encompassing biopharmaceutical and therapeutics. The combined endosperm, germ, and bran of rice consist of several bioactive compounds that result to a synergistic mechanism effect responsible for its health benefits. This article review shall hopefully encourage further relevant studies on rice product innovation as an added high-end value to the rice industry. The perspective ends with a discussion on the challenges and opportunities for biopharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals.
Half of the world population widely consumes rice as a staple food, served on the plate for many dishes from adobo, curries, kimchi, sushi, and stir-fries, to arroz de tomate. Rice is wonderfully versatile beyond than just a food staple, with the capability to be transformed into savories and sweets. Innovative rice food products are notable around the globe, including the Philippines barquirice crispy biscuit roll, Australia’s brown rice chips, and Thailand’s rice-bran oil, fat-free salad dressing, rice noodles, talc-free baby powder, and ready to bake rice flour.
A grain of rice is made up of three parts: the endosperm, which is full of starchy carbohydrates that make up the majority (90%) of the grain; the germ, which contains a higher value of antioxidants; and the outer coating or bran, which includes fiber and vitamins (Grist 1959). Apart from consuming rice as a staple food, it is also used as a model monocot for the advancement of biotechnology research. The manipulation of rice grain in its size, shape, and composition relies on the access to endosperm-specific promoters (ESP) that function in propelling genetic transformation (Li et al. 2008). One of the tissues in the endosperm contains a starchy endosperm, which in turn accumulates storage protein. Promoters of gene that encode the rice seed storage protein are divided into insoluble glutelins, alcohol-soluble prolamins, salt-soluble globulins, and water-soluble albumins (Wu et al. 1998). . . . . read more
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