Application of Edible Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus Extract to Control Postharvest Melanosis in Shrimp, Penaeus vannamei
Marivic G. Llanto and Angel B. Encarnacion*
Department of Agriculture - Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Region 02,
Regional Government Center, Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500 Philippines
Control of the deteriorative effects of melanosis has been a challenge to the industry. Melanosis in crustaceans is normally controlled by means of direct application of various inhibitors such as 4-hexylresorcinol, sulfites, and phosphates. However, direct application of synthetic inhibitors to melanosis and antioxidants in food processing is usually restricted by considerations relevant to safety and effects on the food quality. This study attempted to apply a hot water extract prepared from the trimmings of edible oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting body to control melanosis in cultured Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, through immersion technique. The antioxidative and antimelanosic properties of a hot water extract prepared from the trimmings of edible mushroom fruiting body were evaluated. The study compared the potential of the aqueous mushroom extract to prevent melanosis in cultured Pacific white shrimp with other antimelanosic compounds through immersion technique. The mushroom extract has high antioxidiative and antimelanosic activity. Immersion of marketable size shrimp in a 1.0% w/v solution of mushroom extract for 60 min significantly controlled melanosis in the treated shrimp during ice storage and comparable with the effects of 0.05% w/v ascorbic acid or sodium sulfite treatments. This study suggests that in vivo application of P. ostreatus extract through immersion technique can be an alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents to inhibit postmortem melanosis in shrimp.
Key words: melanosis, mushroom extract, Penaeus vannamei, Pleurotus ostreatus, polyphenol oxidase, scavenging activity
Food appearance is normally associated with color and is one of the primary attributes used by consumers to evaluate food quality. Factors such as naturally occurring pigments in foods and pigments due to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions greatly influence the color of foods. Notably, enzymatic browning is one of the most well studied color reactions that affect fruits, vegetables, and seafood products. It is catalyzed by the enzyme polyphenoloxidase (PPO), generally used to refer to tyrosinase (EC 184.108.40.206) and cathecoloxidase (EC 220.127.116.11) (José-Pablo et al. 2009). While enzymatic browning is essential to the overall acceptability of foods such as tea and cocoa, this can also bring devastating reactions in fruits, vegetables, and seafoods particularly in crustaceans. Severe blackspot formations or melanosis caused by enzymatic reaction in crustaceans can cause significant financial losses being a high value aquatic species (Kim et al. 2002). Such losses have prompted considerable interest in understanding and controlling PPO activity in foods, particularly in crustaceans. . . . . . read more
ADACHI K, HIRATA T, NISHIOKA T, SAKAGUCHI M. 2003. Hemocyte components in crusteaceans convert hemocyanin into phenoloxidase-like enzyme. Comp Biochem Physiol B 134: 135-141.
BAO HND, USHIO H, OHSHIMA T. 2008. Antioxidative activity and antidiscoloration efficacy of ergothionine in mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract added to beef and fish meats. J Agric Food Chem 56: 10032-40.
BAO HND, USHIO H, OHSHIMA T. 2009. Antioxidative activities of mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract added to bigeye tuna meat: dose-dependent efficacy and comparison with other biological antioxidants. J Food Sci 74: 162-169.
BAO HND, OCHIAI Y, OHSHIMA T. 2010. Antioxidative activities of hydrophilic extracts prepared from the fruiting body and spent culture medium of Flammulina velutipes. Bioresource Technol 101(15): 6248-55.
BHATTACHARYA M, SRIVASTAV PP, MISHRA HN. 2014. Optimization of process variables for supercritical fluid extraction of ergothioneine and polyphenols from Pleurotus ostreatus and correlation to free-radical scavenging activity. The J Supercritical Fluids 95: 51-59.
[DA-BFAR] Department of Agriculture - Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. 2016. Philippine Fisheries Profile 2016. Quezon City: DA-BFAR. 11p.
DUBOST NJ, BEELMAN R, PETERSON D, ROYSE D. 2007. Identification and quantification of ergothionine in cultivated mushrooms using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Int J Med Mushr 8: 215-222.
ENCARNACION AB, BAO HND, NAGASAKA R, OHSHIMA T. 2012a. Novel approach for controlling lipid oxidation and melanosis in aquacultured fish and crustaceans: application of edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract In vivo. In: Aquaculture Book 1 Muchlisin Z. ed.. Croatia: INTECH Open Access Publisher. p. 157-184.
ENCARNACION AB, FAGUTAO FF, JINTASATAPORN O, WORAWATTANAMATEEKUL W, HIRONO I, OHSHIMA T. 2012b. Application of ergothioneine-rich extract from an edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes for melanosis prevention in shrimp, Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei. Food Res Int 45(1): 232-237.
ENCARNACION AB, FAGUTAO F, SHOZEN K, HIRONO I, OHSHIMA T. 2011a. Biochemical intervention of ergothioneine-rich edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract inhibits melanosis in the crab (Chionoecetes japonicus). Food Chem 127(4): 1594-99.
ENCARNACION AB, FAGUTAO F, HIRAYAMA J, TEREYAMA M, HIRONO I, OHSHIMA T. 2011b. Ergothioneine from edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) as a potent inhibitor of melanosis in kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus). J Food Sci 1(76): 52-58.
ENCARNACION AB, FAGUTAO FF, HIRONO I, USHIO H, OHSHIMA T. 2010. Effects of ergothioneine from mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) on melanosis and lipid oxidation of kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus). J Agric Food Chem 58: 2577-85.
FERRER O, OTWELL W, MARSHALL M. 1989. Effect of bisulfate on lobster shell phenoloxidase. J Food Sci 54: 478-480.
FU H, SHIEH D, HO C. 2002. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of edible mushrooms. J Food Lipids 9: 35-46.
GARCÍA-CARREÑO FL, COTA K, NAVARRETE DEL TORO MA. 2008. Phenoloxidase activity of hemocyanin in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei: conversion, characterization of catalytic properties, and role in postmortem melanosis. J Agric Food Chem 56: 6454-59.
GUERRERO-BELTRAN J, SWANSON B, BARBOSA-CÁNOVAS G. 2005. Inhibition of polyphenoloxidase in mango puree with 4-hexylresorcinol, cysteine and ascorbic acid. LWT-Food Sci Tech 38: 625-630.
HANLON D. 1971. Interaction of ergothioneine with metal ions and metalloenzymes. J Medicinal Chem 14: 1084-87.
ImageJ (Version 2012) [Computer software]. n.d. National Institute of Health, USA. Retrieved from https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/
JANG MS, SANADA A, USHIO H, TANAKA M, OHSHIMA T. 2002. Inhibitory effect of ‘enokitake’ mushroom extracts on polyphenol oxidase and prevention of apple browning. Lebensm.-Wiss.u.-Tech 35: 697-702.
JANG MS, SANADA A, USHIO H, TANAKA M, OHSHIMA, T. 2003. Inhibitory effect of enokitake extract on melanosis of shrimp. Fisheries Sci 69: 379-384.
JOSÉ-PABLO Z, MARTÍNEZ-ÁLVAREZ, O, MONTERO P, GÓMEZ-GUILLÉN M. 2009. Characterization and tissue distribution of polyphenol oxidase of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris). Food Chem 112: 104-111.
KIM J, MARSHALL MR, WEI C. 2002. Polyphenoloxidase utilization and influence on postharvest seafood quality. In: Seafood Enzymes. Haard N, Simpson B. eds. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. p. 271-315.
PARK YD, LYOU YJ, HAHN HS, HAHN MJ, YANG JM. 2006. Complex inhibition of tyrosinase by thiol-composed Cu2+ chelators: a clue for designing whitening agents. J Biomol Struc Dyna 24: 131-137.
WOLDEGIORGIS AZ, ABATE D, HAKI GD, ZIEGLER GR. 2014. Antioxidant property of edible mushrooms collected from Ethiopia. Food Chem 157: 30-36.